Tramlink Flexity Swift CR4000

Tramlink is a light rail network in Croydon and across South London which is part of Transport for London. It commenced operations in 2000 along former heavy rail lines (the six and a quarter mile route from Wimbledon to West Croydon for example is nearly all ex-railway apart from a few diversions [1]) and new street lines. Bombardier's Flexity Swift tram was chosen for the initial rolling stock of the network. Twenty four articulated cars were produced ready for the start of operations.

Number built: 24
Built: 1998-2000
Builder: Bombardier
Engine: 4 Bombardier Three-Phase traction motors (750v DC OHLE)
Power: 644 hp (480 kW)

The CR4000 tram is similar to the K4000 tram built for Cologne. It has a "seventy six percent" low floor design with a cab at each end. The tram has six axles with the articulated section being on an unpowered bogie. The fleet received a refurbishment in 2008-9 which included new seats and LED lights.

In November 2016 a CR4000 overturned at speed (later found to be travelling too fast for the junction it was travelling over). Seven people died and fifty-eight others were injured. Following the incident a number of extra safety features have been rolled out to the fleet including a reduction in the top speed to forty five mp/h [2].
2543 at Wimbledon

2531 at Mitcham Junction

Behind the cab

2543 departs Mitcham Junction

Some sections of the network are single track

[1] John C. Gillham, Wimbledon to Beckenham before Tramlink (Middleton Press, 2001) p. 3
[2] Colin J. Marsden, Light Rail (Key Publishing, 2018) p. 32

Class 101 (Metropolitan-Cammell General Branch Line and Local Services 2,3 or 4-car)

The Class 101 family was the largest fleet of first generation DMU built for British Railways in the 1950s, however originally only the AEC engined DMBS and DMCL were Class 101 (see information box for explanation of codes). Leyland engined motor cars were originally classified as the Class 102, the DTCLs were Class 144/147, the TSLs Class 162/164, the TBSLs Class 168 and the TCLs Class 171! [1]

Later on the various cars were reclassified as just Class 101. The DMU could operate in either two, three or four car sets with interchangeable trailers (and with trailers in other classes) depending on the needs of the service and served all over the BR network allocated to every region except the Southern [2].

Number built: 637 cars in 2- 3- and 4-car sets
Built: 1956-59
Builder: Metro-Cammell
Engine: 2 BUT (AEC) or Leyland 6-cyl (originally Class 102) diesels per power car
Some DMBS originally fitted with Rolls-Royce diesels
Power: 300 hp (224 kW)
Formation: (Variable) Driving Motor Brake Standard (DMBS)+[Trailer Brake
Standard (TBS)/Trailer Standard Lavatory (TSL)/Trailer Composite
Lavatory (TCL)/Trailer Brake Second Lavatory (TBSL)]+Driving
Motor Composite Lavatory (DMCL)/Driving Trailer Composite
Lavatory (DTCL)

The Class 101 was one of the longest lived first generation DMUs surviving in service until 2003 [3]. In later years many of the trailers lost their first class accommodation and were reclassified as TSLs. Some trailers also originally had buffet facilities but these later had the buffets removed and/or were withdrawn.

Originally the Class 101s were delivered in British Railways green then later BR Blue and the blue/grey white/blue variations in the 1970s. In later years the Class 101s wore sector liveries (Network SE and Regional Railways) as well as various PTE liveries. Over forty cars have been preserved although only two of these are centre car trailers. A sister class of Rolls-Royce powered DMUs was also built as the Class 111 (though a couple of 101 power cars did had Rolls-Royce engines too!)
DMBS E50253 at Duffield

M51188 departs Wirksworth

At Wirksworth 
DMBS 51188 and DMC 51505 at Wirksworth

M51188 at Ravenstor

At Duffield

[1] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013), p. 36
[2] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Multiple Units: the First Generation (Ian Allan, 1985), p. 31
[3] Gavin Morrison, British Railway DMUs in Colour (Ian Allan, 2010), p. 13

Cardiff Corporation 131

Tramway companies employed a number of vehicles for maintenance and, what would be termed on the railways, departmental use. One frequent need were for water cars to help keen the roads (and tracks) as clear as possible from mud and animal waste (horse drawn vehicles still being the majority at the start of the twentieth century). Many purpose built water cars were built with a wide variety of different set-ups depending on the operator's requirements [1].

Number built: 1
Built: 1902
Builder: Electric Railway & Tramway Carriage Works of Preston
Engine: 2 GEC 200K traction motors (550v DC OHLE)
Power: 60 hp (45 kW)

Cardiff Corporation 131 is the only water car to have survived into preservation. A small single truck tram, it was built for the Corporation in 1902 with a thousand gallon water tank. It was in use until 1950 when the Cardiff tram system was closed. Originally 131 had open sides but wooden panelling was added in 1913, which was not usual for water cars which were usually kept open. The tram was also fitted out for rail grinding and was used for staff transport.
Cardiff Corporation 131 at Crich Tramway Museum

Original configuration, public domain image [2]
131 isn't large, compare the double decker tram behind

The water tank can be seen inside behind the cab

131 has a cab at both ends
[1] R.W. Rush, British Electric Tramcar Design (Oxford Publishing, 1976) p. 119
[2] "The Cardiff Corporation Tramways", Electric Railway Journal Vol. XX No. 1 (July 1902) p. 42

Class 450 Desiro

The Class 450 is part of the Desiro family of EMU and are very similar to the Class 350 but works off the former Southern Region 750V DC third rail system (the 350s operate off 25kV AC OHLE). One hundred and twenty seven sets have been built for South West Trains replacing life expired "slam door" VEP and CIG stock [1]. Although they can only be used on third-rail electrified routes they do have space for the retro-fitting of a pantograph if needed in the future.

Number built: 508 (127 4-car sets)
Built: 2002-7
Builder: Siemens Transportation
Engine: 4 1TB2016 0GB02 three-phase traction motors (750V DC third rail)
Power: 2, 682 hp (2, 000 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)+Trailer Composite Open
(TCO)+Trailer Standard Open (TSO)+
Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)

The original fleet is known as the Class 450/0 and can carry 242 standard class and 24 first class passengers, first and some standard class seating is 2+2 with other standard class seating being 2+3. Twenty eight sets were modified for higher capacity (facilitated by removing first class seats and altering the internal layout) for the Waterloo-Windsor route [2] in 2008-9 as Class 450/5. First class seating was restored to these units as they were replaced by Class 458/5s on the route from 2013 and the 450/5s rejoined the main fleet.

Originally SWT were to receive a mixed fleet of 450/0s and 450/2s which were to be 5-car sets for inner suburban routes however the idea was dropped due to problems with platform lengths. All sets remain in service with South West Trains's successor South Western Railway who took over in the late Summer of 2017 [3].
SWR 450 104 and 560 at Haslemere

SWT 450 088 at Guilford

SWT 450 093 and 037 at Woking

SWT 450 031 at Alton

SWT 450 544 at Clapham Junction 
SWT 450 562 at Portsmouth Harbour

[1] John Balmforth, South West Trains (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 62
[2] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 349
[3] Modern Railways (May 2017) p. 24

Alan Keef 59R Beaudesert

Beaudesert is number 80 in the Leighton Buzzard Narrow Gauge Railway fleet. The locomotive is used for shunting, engineering trains and standby passenger duties. The locomotive is a rebuild of an earlier T-Series locomotive made by Simplex which was used as a shunter on the Channel Tunnel project, and before that was owned by the National Coal Board.

Number built: 1
Built: 1979
(Rebuilt 1999)
Builder: Simplex
(Rebuild Alan Keef)
Engine: Dorman 6DA diesel
Power: 112 hp (84 kW)
Wheel arrangement: 4wDH

Originally built as Simplex 101T018 in 1979 the locomotive was rebuilt by Alan Keef in 1999 with the works number 59R [1]. The locomotive was re-gauged from 900mm to 610mm. The locomotive is named after a school near to the railway.
Four views of Beaudesert on the Leighton Buzzard Narrow Gauge Railway

[1] Industrial Locomotives Handbook 13EL (Industrial Railway Society, 2003) p. 27

District Railway Electric Locomotives

The District Railway bought ten of these locomotives from the Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Company of Birmingham to haul London & North Western Railway and later London, Tilbury & Southend Railway services along the electrified section of its outer circle route between Earl's Court and Mansion House [1] and later onto Barking (the District Railway no longer wanted steam locomotives operating through these tunnels). The locomotives operated in pairs and only had a cab at one end. They were based on the railway's then-current fleet of B Stock EMUs and had wooden bodies and clerestory roofs [2].

Number built: 10
Built: 1905
Builder: Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon Company
Engine: 4 British Thomson-Houston GE69 traction motors
(600v DC fourth rail)
Power: 800 hp (597 kW)
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

The locomotives were equipped with British Thomson-Houston traction equipment though in 1922 the traction motors were replaced by GE260 from F Stock. Three locomotives were scrapped in 1911 though the rest remained in service until 1939 when the LTSR service was withdrawn.
Model of locomotive at London Transport Museum

Public domain image [3]

Public domain image [3]
[1] "Electric Locos for London & North Western Cars in London", Street Railway Journal (1906) Vol XXVII No. 1, p. 46
[2] R.L. Vickers, DC Electric Trains & Locomotives in the British Isles (David & Charles, 1986) p. 29
[3] Street Railway Journal p. 46

Class 488

As with the Class 438 the Class 488 were unpowered sets of trailers given TOPS numbers in the Southern Region EMU band. The Class 488 was formed from redundant Mark 2f coaching stock (many of which were now surplus after the arrival into service of the HST [1]) for a modernisation of services from London Victoria to Gatwick Airport. A dedicated Gatwick Airport Express was created with a fifteen minute interval [2]. Two (488/2) and three (488/3) car sets were formed and were sandwiched between a Class 73/1 locomotive and a Class 489 Motor Luggage Van.

Number built: 77 (10 2-car and 19 3-car sets)
Built: (Mark 2 Coach) 1973-74
(Conversion) 1983-84
Builder: BR Derby
(Conversion) BR Eastleigh
Engine: N/A
Formation: (488/2) Trailer First Open Lavatory Handbrake (TFOLH)+
Trailer Second Open Lavatory Handbrake (TSOLH)
(488/2) TSOLH+Trailer Second Open Lavatory (TSOL)+TSOLH

The coaches were rebuilt for their new role with reduced seats, easier access and greater luggage space [3]. They had high-level control and air brake connectors fitted and were semi-permanently coupled with bar couplings and buck-eye couplings on the outer ends. They remained in service until 2005 when they were replaced by Class 460s. Following withdrawal a number have been preserved and others found new roles with Network Rail (ten coaches found new roles [4]) and Northern Ireland Railways.
488 202 preserved at Wirksworth, Ecclesbourne Valley Railway (with a 489)

Ex 488 309 coach 6070 now Network Rail Plain Line Pattern Recognition Vehicle 72639
Ex 488 316 coach 6094 now RTC Structure Gauging Train Support Coach 72630

[1] John Glover, BR Diary 1978-1985 (Ian Allan, 1985) p. 99
[2] Colin J. Marsden, Motive Power Recognition 2: EMUs (2nd Edition) (Ian Allan, 1986) p. 100
[3] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 372
[4] Colin J. Marsden (ed.), "Former EMUs with Network Rail", Modern Locomotives Illustrated 231 (Departmental Multiple Units) June-July 2018, p. 72

Class 20 (English Electric 1,000hp Type 1 Diesel-Electric)

The Class 20 is the most successful Type 1 diesel bought by BR (by some margin) and indeed the only one still in service - sixty years after it was first introduced! After early trials with prototype diesels BR ordered a number of "pilot scheme" diesels in the mid-1950s as part of its Modernisation Plan to eliminate steam. Twenty of these diesels were from what would become the Class 20 and in fact the first one built (D8000) was the very first diesel delivered to BR under this pilot scheme [1].

The Class 20 has a cab only at one end, though typically it works in pairs with the cabs outer most to make one "virtual" 2, 000hp locomotive. When it is operated bonnet first drivers have had problems with seeing the line ahead (as they did with large steam locomotives). Because of this BR decided to standardise on the Class 17, which had a central cab and much better visibility, instead for its Type 1 however various problems with the Class 17 forced BR to do an about face in the late 1960s and restart Class 20 production. [2]

Number built: 228
Built: 1957-68
Builder: English Electric
Engine: English Electric 8SVT Mk2 diesel
Power: 1, 000 hp (746 kW)
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

The Class 20 became one of BR's most reliable locomotives popular with BR and enthusiasts who have given them the name "Choppers". They were usually found on freights with the occasional passenger service in the Summer (they have no train heating provision) [3]. There have been a number of sub-classes, most Class 20s have remained as standard (20/0) but a small number were modified as 20/3 for aggregate workings in the 1980s. 20/3 was later re-used for locomotives modernised and refurbished post-privatisation. A few locos have also been modified for remote control trials as 20/9.

The fleet was run down in the 1980s with most withdrawn by the time of privatisation but since then the Class 20 has seen a bit of a renaissance and has found a niche on spot hire trains and a number remain in service to this day [4]. A large number has also been preserved including the very first one, and pilot scheme loco, built which is with the NRM.
20 189 at Kidderminster SVR

20 132 in original Railfreight livery at Derby

First of the Class 20s D8000 at the NRM York

GB Railfreight 20 905 at Derby

Cab of D8059

20 189 at Kidderminster SVR
[1] Brian Haresnape, Early Prototype & Pilot-Scheme Diesel-Electrics (Ian Allan, 1981) p. 35
[2] Brian Haresnape, Production Diesel-Electrics Types 1-3 (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 26
[3] J.A.M. Vaughan, Profile of the Class 20s (OPC, 1984) p. 3
[4] Colin J Marsden, Traction Recognition (2nd Edition) (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 14

Leeds City Tramways Radial Class

Leeds City Tramways Radial Class was a large class of street trams built in three batches between 1925 and 1931 by Brush Traction, English Electric and by the tramway company itself at it's Kirkstall Road works.

Number built: 200
Built: 1925-31
Builder: Brush Traction, English Electric, Leeds City Tramways
Engine: 2 Dick Kerr 30B1 traction motors (550v DC OHLE)
Power: 100 hp (75 kW)

The trams were the first completely enclosed trams in the Leeds fleet and also had a four wheel radial E.M.B. trucks with a centre pivot between each pair of wheels [1], the Leeds examples being the only authority to use such a truck. Two trams (one of which was 399 pictured below) were fitted with Peckham P22 trucks for comparison purposes. The pivot trucks were not deemed a success (there were problems with brakes due to the geometry of the radial motion) and most trams were retrofitted with Peckham P35s after the Second World War, those not modified had the centre pivot locked.

The trams were withdrawn in the first half of the 1950s. Number 399 was withdrawn in 1951 but was used for some time afterwards as a depot shunter. It was preserved in 1959 and is now at Crich Tramway Museum.
Leeds 399 in the depot shed at Crich

Front of 399

[1] R.W. Rush, British Electric Tramcar Design 1885-1950 (Oxford Publishing, 1976) p. 105

Class 56 (BR/Brush 3,250hp Type 5 Diesel-Electric)

In the wake of the oil crisis in the early 1970s British Rail saw the need for a new generation of Type 5 diesel locomotives (rated for over 3, 000 hp) for what was expected to be a much greater demand for heavy coal haulage. The Class 56 was the first of these new locomotives and the new class of diesel locomotive for nearly a decade [1]. It was based on the successful Class 47 platform but with a more powerful engine (a development of the successful English Electric CSVT engines used in many classes of diesel like the Class 50) and slow speed control for Merry-Go-Round coal trains when they were loaded and unloaded [2].

Number built: 135
Built: 1976-84
Builder: Brush Traction/Electroputere (first 30)
Brush Traction/BREL Doncaster and Crewe (rest)
Engine: Ruston Paxman 16RK3CT diesel
Power: 3, 250 hp (2, 424 kW)
Wheel arrangement: Co-Co

Because of a lack of manufacturing capacity at the time at Brush Traction, who designed the Class 56, the first thirty were built by Electroputere in Romania with the rest being built at BR Doncaster and Crewe. The Romanian examples unfortunately suffered from a number of problems said to be due to poor workmanship which delayed their entry into service for over a year [3]. The decision to build the first batch in Romania and the urgency with which the locomotives were needed saw the locomotive have bogies of a Swiss design as these were widely used in Romania at the time and were easily available.

The Class 56 worked on heavy freights throughout the 1980s and into the privatisation era but most were withdrawn in the early 2000s. Some were later reinstated into traffic and undertook heavy refurbishment as the Class 56/3 [4].

Many have been scrapped, some sold for use on the continent and three have been preserved. Today around thirty remain in service usually used for spot hire. It is possible some Class 56s could be re-engined and rebuilt for extended service into the service though as yet no work has been undertaken.
Colas 50 078 at Kidderminster SVR

Front view of 56 303 at Derby

Colas 56 302 at York

Cab side view of 56 303

DCR 56 303 at Derby

Another view of 56 302 at York
[1] Chris Heaps, BR Diary 1968-1977 (Ian Allan, 1988) p. 104
[2] Brian Haresnape, Production Diesel-Electrics Types 4 and 5 (2nd Edition) (Ian Allan, 1984) p. 75
[3] Ibid p. 75
[4] Colin J Marsden, Traction Recognition (2nd Edition) (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 51

Class 442 5-WES Wessex Electrics

The Class 442 was built for Network South East services out of London Waterloo to Weymouth to replace Class 432 and some Class 33 + 4-TC services [1] (electrification of the route being extended from Bournemouth to Weymouth in the mid-1980s [2]). The Class 442, which became known as the Wessex Electrics [3], was designed around the Mark 3b coach with a single power vehicle in a five car set. In keeping with Southern Region tradition the Class 442 included equipment recycled from the Class 432 units they were replacing. Equipment re-used included the traction system.

Number built: 120 (24 5-car sets)
Built: 1988-89
Builder: BR Derby
Engine: 4 EE546 traction motors (750c DC third rail)
Power: 1, 600 hp (1, 200 kW)
Formation: Driving Trailer Standard (DTS)+Trailer Standard Open (TSO)+
Motor Luggage Composite (MLC)+Trailer Standard Wheelchair (TSW)+DTS

The Class 442s had some initial problems especially with hot axle boxes but became popular with passengers. The Class 442 was transferred to South West Trains following privatisation but were replaced by Desiro stock in 2007. They were rebuilt and modified at Wolverton and used on the Gatwick Express services out of London Victoria and some Southern services. They were replaced by Class 387s in 2017 however this was not to be the end of the Class 442 story.

There were various schemes and suggestions to use the 442s, including even a proposal to use them as hauled stock on trans Pennine routes! Finally it was announced that the new South Western Railway franchise (which replaced South West Trains in 2017) are to use refurbished sets on London Waterloo to Portsmouth services.
442 423 at London Victoria
Gatwick Express 442 clears Clapham Junction

Another Gatwick Express 442 at Clapham Junction

London Victoria bound

[1] Brian Haresnape & Alec Swain, Third Rail DC Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1989) p. 80
[2] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 342
[3] John Balmforth, South West Trains (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 60