Class 707 Desiro City

Part of the Desiro City family like the Class 700, the Class 707 were built for services out of London Waterloo along the Windsor and Reading corridors [1].

Number built: 150 (30 5-car sets)
Built: 2015-17
Builder: Siemens Transportation
Engine: Siemens Traction System (750v DC third rail)
Power: 1, 600 hp (1, 200 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)+Trailer Standard Open (TSO)

The fleet was ordered by South West Trains to increase capacity especially in peak-hour serices out of Waterloo. The first 707s were delivered at the end of 2016 with an entry into service in the late Summer of 2017. Then events overtook them. SWT's franchise was taken over by South Western Railway who saw the 707s as being unsuitable for their planned servie improvements and ordered Aventra family EMUs instead [2]. The Class 707s will be replaced from 2019.

As yet the future of the 707s is undecided. In theory they could be scrapped though this is unlikely of course and they will be found somewhere else to operate. They were built as dual voltage EMUs though only a couple have been fitted with pantographs for testing on 25kV AC overhead lines, the rest only have DC third rail shoes fitted.
SWR 707 002 at Clapham Junction

SWR 707 014 arrives at Clapham Junction

Another SWR 707 at Clapham Junction

[1] Colin J. Marsden, Rail Guide 2016 (Ian Allan, 2016) p. 123
[2] "South Western Railway: the masterplan and its challenges", Modern Railway (January 2018) p. 51

Class 05 (Hunslet Engine Co. 204hp Diesel-Mechanical)

The Class 05 was yet another type of small shunter built for British Railways in the late 1950s (the Class 05 designation was shared with the Andrew Barclay DJ14 class of 0-6-0DM shunter [1]). This Class 05 (also known as the DJ13, D2/8, 2/15A, D2/9 and 2/15 at various times) was built in two distinct batches, the second batch being somewhat larger with deeper bufferbeams and larger cab windows [2].

However all were withdrawn in 1966-68 along with hundreds of other surplus to requirements shunters except a couple which went into departmental service.

Number built: 120
Built: 1955-61
Builder: Hunslet Engine Co.
Engine: Gardner CLP 8L3 diesel
Power: 204 hp (152 kW)
Wheel arrangement: 0-6-0

One of these was sent to the Isle of Wight to run engineering trains on the newly electrified Island Line. It arrived in 1966 and became the last survivor of the class on BR metals (and indeed any Hunslet loco) serving until 1984 and gaining TOPS numbers. It was replaced by a Class 03 following gearbox problems - though has been preserved by the Isle of Wight Steam Railway [3]. Four Class 05s in total have been preserved [4].
Two views of D2587 preserved at the Heritage Shunters Trust, Rowsley South

[1] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Shunters (Ian Allan, 1984) p. 50
[2] Haresnape p. 48
[3] R.J. Maycock & R. Silsbury, The Isle of Wight Railways from 1923 Onwards (Oakwood Press, 2006) p. 256
[4] Heritage Shunters Trust Stock List p. 8

Waterloo and City Railway Stock

The Waterloo & City Railway was built to connect the LSWR terminus at Waterloo with the City of London. Due to land restrictions the railway had to be built as a deep level tunnel and thus required electric railway stock.

Number built: 31
Built: 1897-1921
Builder: Jackson & Sharp / Eastleigh Works
(later) English Electric
Engine: 2 Siemens traction motors per power car (530-600v DC third rail)
(later DMs) 2 English Electric 15L traction motors
Power: 120 hp (89 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor (DM)+Trailer (T)+T+DM (peak hours)

The rolling stock was built in kit form by the Jackson & Sharp Company in the US and then shipped over to be assembled at the LSWR Eastleigh Works. Once assembled the cars were then lowered down to the new railway via a lift as there was no (and never has been) connection between the Waterloo & City line and the rest of the railway network. Testing along the line took place in June 1898 with public service beginning just two months later! The cars were built as open saloons with wooden seating, there were separate compartments on later stock for smokers and non-smokers.

The initial batch of vehicles was for twenty-two, half Driving Motors and half Trailers. In peak hours four car formations were used though smaller formations could be used when it was quieter. One problem the Waterloo & City suffered from more than most railways (and still does to this day) was the huge difference between peak and off-peak demand. To cater for the latter five extra Driving Motors with cabs at both end were built at the Dick Kerr factory (later English Electric) for use in quieter periods [3][4]. A final batch of five extra trailers were built at Eastleigh in 1921 to enable the peak time trains to be increased in length.

The Waterloo & City Railway became part of Southern Railway in 1923. In the 1930s the railway held a review of the line and decided to build new stock to replace the original stock which was now approaching forty years old and rather obsolete. They had been built as gate stock with end doors which had to be manually opened and closed and not sliding doors. They required a lot more staff to be present and took longer to load and unload as a consequence. The original stock was withdrawn from service in 1940 [5] being replaced by what became the Class 487.
Double ended car built by Dick, Kerr. Public domain image [1]

Interior, public domain image [1]

On the surface after delivery, public domain image [2]

[1] "Some new English rolling stock", Street Railway Review Vol. X No. 6 (June 1900) p. 350
[2] "Dick, Kerr Co. " (Advertisement), Street Railway Journal (October 1901) p. 39
[3] Street Railway Review p. 350
[4] John C. Gillham, The Waterloo & City Railway (Oakwood Press, 2001) p. 177
[5] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 178

Class 487 Waterloo & City Stock

The Class 487 EMUs (and the follow on Class 482s) spent the entirely of their revenue earning service with British Rail running underground. They operated on the Waterloo & City Line which nowadays is part of London Underground but originally was a separate line and owned by a succession of mainline railway companies until nationalisation and British Rail. In 1994 the line was transferred to London Underground to become a "tube" proper.

Designed by O.V.S. Bulleid the Class 487s (originally TOPS classified Class 453) were built for the Southern Railway during World War 2 and entered service from 1940 [1]. The units consisted of driving motor cars (with cabs at both ends - and hence could operate singly) and trailers. In off-peak periods the Waterloo & City Line trains often ran with just a pair of motor cars until the 1960s when this was thought to be unsafe due to the excess of power [2]). In peak times up to three trailers could be marshalled between two motor cars.

Number built: 28 cars (12 DMBSO driving cars and 16 TSO trailers)
Built: 1940
Builder: English Electric Dick Kerr works
Engine: 2 English Electric EE500 traction motors (660v DC third rail)
Power: 380 hp (283 kW) per driving car
Formation: (Variable) Driving Motor Brake Standard Open (DMBSO)+
Trailer Standard Open (TSO)+DMBSO

They remained in service until being replaced by the Class 482 in 1993 seeing out their final days in Network South East livery. Before that they wore Southern Railway green and BR Blue (though uniquely without yellow ends) [3]. The Class 487s operated on 660v DC third rail and spent all of their working lives on their short underground line though they did see sunlight now and then when they needed heavy maintenance and had to be bought up to the surface. For test purposes to develop a new speedometer one driving car operated above ground in the late 1970s for a short period [4]. As it did not have windscreen wipers the tests had to be curtailed immediately if it rained!

One DMBSO has been saved from the scrap man and has being restored at the London Transport Museum to its final Network South East livery.
At LT Museum Acton in restored NSE livery


Cab view
Restored condition
A photo taken in May 2015 during the restoration

The preserved car in under coat, what a difference a livery makes!
[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 370
[2] Colin J Marsden & Christopher G Perkins (ed.) "The Waterloo & City Line", Modern Locomotives Illustrated Annual No. 2 (RailwayCentre, 2010) p.82
[3] John Glover, London Underground Rolling Stock in Colour (Ian Allan, 2009) p. 31
[4] Marsden, DMU p. 371

Class 71 (BR Doncaster / English Electric 2,552hp DC Electric Type HA)

The Class 71 DC electric locomotive was built for the expansion of the Southern Region third-rail DC network into Kent. They were designed with an emphasis on a good power/weight ratio [1] with inspiration taken from best practice on the continent.

Number built: 24
Built: 1958-60
Builder: BR Doncaster / English Electric
Engine: 4 EE432/A traction motors (750/650v DC third rail, 650v DC OHLE)
English Electric 836 DC booster
Power: 2, 552 hp (1, 900 kW) (maximum)
2, 300 hp (1, 720 kW) (continuous)
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

The Class 71 (originally known as HA in the Southern Region's pre-TOPS classification scheme) operated off DC third rail. However the Class 71 was also equipped with a pantograph for use in yards such as Hither Green which had light-weight tram style DC overhead catenary as this was considered safer for staff walking about the yard than live rails [2]. The Class 71 worked boat trains, prestigeous expresses like the Golden Arrow and freights.

The Class 71 was equipped with a flywheel booster to handle gaps in the electric supply and could travel for short distances "off juice". However the Class 71's role was reduced as the sort of trains it was intended for were withdrawn or switched to multiple-units and using diesel or electro-diesel traction was more flexible. They had to be carefully diagrammed so they only worked yards and routes which had been electrified, an extra problem at night time and at weekends was where the power was turned off due to engineering work necessitating lengthy detours or replacement by diesel locomotives.

Withdrawals began in the 1960s with 10 removed from service to be converted into the Class 74 electro-diesel. The bulk of the fleet was laid up in late 1976 and withdrawn in 1977 [3]. One has been preserved.
71 001 preserved at NRM Shildon

[1] Brian Haresnape, Electric Locomotives (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 41
[2] Alan Williams, Southern Electric Album (Ian Allan, 1977) p. 90
[3] Pip Dunn, British Rail Main Line Locomotive Specification Guide (Crowood Press, 2013) p. 145

NER Electric Shunter 1 (Class ES1)

A mile long freight branch from Newcastle Quay was electrified by the North Eastern Railway at the start of the 20th century because steam locomotives were proving hard to use on the line. The line had a tunnel with a very sharp hairpin bend in it so that both mouths were pointing in the same direction. This often meant that the exhaust from steam locomotives (which had to work hard because of the gradients in the tunnel) became trapped making conditions very difficult if not dangerous for crews [1]. Two electric shunting engines were instead built for this line by Brush using BTH electrical equipment collecting 600v DC current from overhead lines and third rail (in the tunnel). At the time of construction they were the largest electric locomotives built in the UK [2].

Number built: 2
Built: 1903-04
Builder: British Thomson-Houston/Brush
Engine: 4 GE/British Thomson-Houston 55 traction motors
(600-630v DC third rail & OHLE)
Power: 640 hp (477 kW)
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

Although they spent most of their time on freight shunting they could also work with NER's Tyneside EMUs in the same area [3] at South Gosforth MPD [4]. They later passed into the LNER fleet and finally British Railways where they became known as the Class ES1. They were finally retired in 1964, Number 1 was preserved and can now be found at NRM Shildon.
Three views of Number 1 now preserved at NRM Shildon

Number 2 in original condition with bow style collector, public domain image [5]

Side view of Number 2 notice the third rail shoes deployed, public domain image [6]
[1] Brian Haresnape, Electric Locomotives (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 7
[2] "Electric freight locomotives for the North East of England", The Street Railway Journal October 1904 (Vol XXIV No. 15) p. 674
[3] R.L. Vickers, DC Electric Trains and Locomotives in the British Isles (David & Charles, 1986) p. 57
[4] David Dunn, Tyneside Electrics: 2 (South Shields Branch & System Miscellany) (Booklaw, 2016) p. 37
[5] Street Railway Journal p. 675
[6] Street Railway Journal p. 676

Class 387 Electrostar

The Class 387 is the final development of the Electrostar family having a higher top speed of 110mp/h. When the final carriages were built in November 2017 [1] it bought to an end 18 years of continuous Electrostar production with a grand total of 2,805 carriages built of the Classes 357, 375, 376, 377, 378 and 387 [2].

Number built: 428 (107 4-car sets)
Built: 2014-17
Builder: Bombardier Derby
Engine: Bombardier MITRAC DR1000 traction system
(750v DC third rail and 25kv AC OHLE)
Power: 2, 250 hp (1, 900 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Composite Open (DMCO)+Motor Second Open (MSO)+
Trailer Second Open (TSO)+DMCO

The Class 387 is in service with Great Northern, Great Western Railway, Gatwick Express and c2c. They were also in service with Thameslink until being transferred to Great Northern after being replaced by Class 700s.

Extermally Class 387s look the same as the likes of the Class 377. Class 387/1s are in service with Great Northern and GWR. 387/2s with Gatwick Express and 387/3s with c2c. The c2c trains are due to be replaced by new build EMUs in 2019 and will likely go and join one of the other operators to strengthen their fleet.
GWR 387 156 arrives at Ealing Broadway

Thameslink 387 113 at London Blackfriars

Thameslink 387 103 at Bedford

Gatwick Express 387 223 on a test run through Stafford

Thameslink 387 103 at Bedford, its replacement a Class 700 behind it

[1] Roger Ford, "Rolling stock factories over-capacity threat", Modern Railways (December 2017) p. 25
[2] "Last-ever Electrostar finished in Derby as 18 years of production come to an end" <>

London Underground 1938 Tube Stock

The 1938 Tube Stock was built as part of London Underground's New Works Programme of the late 1930s, they became one of the most successful - if not the most successful - types of British train ever. They served on the underground for 50 years and, in the guise of the Class 483 are still in service on the Isle of Wight, nearly 80 years after first entry in service!

Number built: 1, 121 (plus 173 additional builds & conversions)
Built: 1938-47
Builder: Metro-Cammell / Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Company
Engine: 2 General Electric or Crompton Parkinson LT100 traction motors
per motor car (630v DC fourth rail)
Formation: (4+3 7-car formation) Driving Motor (DM)+Trailer (T)
+Non-Driving Motor (NDM)+DM(+DM+T+DM)

In the late 1930s London Underground began an expansion programme known as the New Works Programme, new lines required new trains. Even before the huge Standard stock order had been completed London Underground were planning the next generation of tube trains. A number of experimental trains were built known as the 1935 Tube Stock. These were an advance on the Standard stock, advances in technology meaning that the switching equipment could be fitted underneath the body instead of occupying space behind the driving cabs [1]. A number of these trains were streamlined to experiment with high-speed tube trains however the streamlining idea, which was unpopular with the senior management at London Underground (though apparently popular with the public), was later dropped.

Having evaluated a number of types of equipment on the 1935 protoypes London Underground decided on a final specification and placed huge orders for new stock to be known as 1938 Tube Stock. Most stock was delivered before the Second World War called a halt to development with the final 27 outstanding cars built in 1946-47. The fleet was later augmented by 173 cars - a mixture of conversion of Standard and 1935 Tube Stock cars and 91 new builds known as the 1948 Tube Stock (though identical to the 1938s).

Initially the stock operated in 7-car formation, comprising a 4 and 3 car set semi-permanently coupled [2]. Later on 9-car formations were used on the Northern Line [3]. During their long lives the 1938 Tube Stock worked on the Bakerloo, Central, East London, Northern and Piccadilly Lines. Withdrawals began in the early 1970s [4] though the 1938 Tube Stock remained in service on the Underground until 1988 when the final 5 trains (which had been refurbished to augment newer trains) were withdrawn by the Northern Line. These trains however were then sold to British Rail and still operate on the Isle of Wight to this day as the Class 483 [5].

A working 4-car set of 1938 Tube Stock has been preserved [6] as well as another Driving Motor (and a couple of cabs) in museums.
Preserved 4-car set at LTM Depot Acton

Another view of the preserved 38ts alongside a preserved car of its predecessor

Preserved DM at Covent Garden

Front end destination display

The other end of the preserved set
[1] Paul Moss, London Underground (Haynes, 2014) p. 95
[2] J. Graeme Bruce, The London Underground Tube Stock (Ian Allan, 1988) p. 77
[3] Brian Hardy, Underground Train File: Tube Stock 1933-1959 (Capital Transport, 2001) p. 66
[4] Bruce p. 81
[5] Brian Hardy, Tube Trains on the Isle of Wight (Capital Transport, 2003) p. 60
[6] Kim Rennie, Underground and Overground Trains (Capital Transport, 2017) p. 36

Docklands Light Railway B90/B92/B2K Stock

The Docklands Light Railway is a growing light rail network in the East of London which has supported the redevelopment of the former docklands area. Unlike other lines which have been built in response to demand the DLR was built to attract people to a previously run down area [1]. The B90/B92/B2K fleet is a second generation of trains which supplemented and then replaced the original P86/89 Stock.

All DLR trains are automatically controlled though carry a Passenger Service Agent who can control the train if necessary via a locked console. The trains do not have cabs and so are popular with passengers who can get a great front view of travel! The DLR trains consist of a single articulated car [2] though can operate in multiples of up to 3. Some DLR trains have now being augmented with an extra car in the middle, the entire fleet will eventually be upgraded this way. The DLR operates off 750v DC third rail like most railways in London though in the DLR's case power is picked up from the underside of the conductor rail, the top and sides having plastic covers.

Number built: 94 (23 B90, 47 B92, 24 B2K)
Built: 1991-2002
Builder: Bombardier
Engine: Brush TM2111A traction motors (750v DC third rail bottom contact)
Power: 375 hp (280 kW)

The B2K cars differ from the 2 earlier batches in that they have been modified to adhere to accessibility regulations and have contrasting colour doors and handrails and internal LCD screens. The earlier cars have being bought up to the same standard during refurbishment. However the fleets are worked hard and the B90 and B92 are showing signs of being worn out, they are due to replaced by new build vehicles in the early 2020s [3][4].
B90 #36 at Canning Town

B92 #54 at Poplar depot with older style red front end

B92 #63 at Shadwell

A DLR train departs Royal Albert
B92 #48 at Tower Gateway

[1] Oliver Green, The London Underground (Ian Allan, 1987) p. 67
[2] Colin J Marsden, Rail Guide 2013 (Ian Allan, 2012) p. 256
[3] Roger Ford, "Rolling stock factories over-capacity threat", Modern Railways (December 2017) p. 25 
[4] DLR Rolling Stock Replacement Programme, Transport for London <>

Class 506 (Metro-Cammell / Birmingham Railway Wagon and Carriage Company LMR Manchester Suburban Services 3-car)

The Class 506 was built for the electrification of the LNER Woodhead route between Manchester (London Road) and Sheffield [1] and the Glossop branch. The electrification of the line had begun in the late 1930s but due to the war was not completed until the early 1950s. These units, built to the same design as the AC electric Shenfield line Class 306 [2], but drawing on 1500v DC overhead electric spent their working lives on the Hatfield and Glossop line [3].

Number built: 24 (8 3-car sets)
Built: 1954
Builder: Metro-Cammell / Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Comany
Engine: 4 GEC traction motors (1500v DC OHLE)
Power: 740 hp (555 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Brake Standard (DMBS)+Trailer Composite (TC)
+Driving Trailer Standard (DTS)

later TC became a Trailer Standard (TS)

They were built with first class accommodation in the central trailer but this was declassified in 1960. Although they physically could have operated elsewhere on the Woodhead route the Class 506s seldom left their line. The Woodhead route was closed East of Hatfield in 1981 but the Class 506s continued in service until their line was converted to AC electrification in 1984. They became the last mainline trains to operate using the once standard 1500v DC overhead line method. All that remains of the class is a single severed cab that has survived into preservation.
This cab of M508404M is all that survives

The pantograph can be seen on the cab roof

[1] Alec Swain, Overhead Line Electric-Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1990) p. 21
[2] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recogition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 384 
[3] Alan Whitehouse, The Woodhead Route (Ian Allan, 2014) p. 38

Class 165 Network Turbo

The Class 165 "Network Turbo" was built for British Rail in the early 1990s to replace first generation DMUs on Thames and Chiltern route suburban services [1]. Seventy six 2-car and 3-car sets were built and all but one, which was destroyed in the Ladbroke Grove rail disaster, remain in service today with Chiltern Railways and First Great Western.

Number built: 144 (76 2- and 3-car sets)
Built: 1990-92
Builder: BREL York
Engine: Perkins 2006-TWH diesel (one per car)
Power: 700 / 1, 050 hp (520 / 780 kW)
Formations: 165/0: Driving Motor Standard Lavatory (DMSL)+
Motor Standard (MS)+Driving Motor Standard (DMS)

165/1: Driving Motor Composite Lavatory (DMCL)+MS+DMS

There are 2 sub-classes. the 165/0 was originally built for Chiltern services on Network South East and remains on the same routes including services from Marylebone to Birmingham, to Aylesbury and to Stratford-upon-Avon. Trip-cock equipment has been fitted to Chiltern units as they travel on London Underground track between Harrow-on-the-Hill and Amersham.

165/1 was built for services out of Paddington along the Great Western main line. They are still in service on Thames Valley services to destinations like Oxford and Banbury. They have bogie modifications to allow for a higher top speed (90 mp/h as opposed to 75 mp/h on the 165/0).
GWR 165 123 at Tackley

Chiltern 165 002 at Bicester North

Chiltern 165 022 at Aylesbury

Chiltern 165 019 at Lapworth

Aboard a Chiltern 165

GWR 165 106 at Oxford

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recogition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 149

Vale of Rheidol Number 10 (BMR002)

Diesel shunter Number 10 (works number BMR002) performs shunting and hauls engineering trains on the narrow gauge Vale of Rheidol railway between Aberystwyth and Devil's Bridge. The locomotive was bought while the railway was still part of British Rail (until 1989) and thus was the last shunter bought by BR!

Number built: 1
Built: 1987
Builder: Brecon Mountain Railway / Baguely Drewry
Engine: Caterpillar diesel
Power: 165 hp (123 kW)
Wheel arrangement: 0-6-0

The locomotive was built at the Brecon Mountain Railway at Pant from parts obtained by Baguely Drewry [1] when that company went out of business. Number 10 is a diesel hydraulic. Two similar locomotives are also operated by the Ffestiniog Railway.
Number 10 shunts coaching stock at Aberystwyth

Bringing the train in

Number 10 is painted in GWR Brunswick green to match the VoR's steam fleet

[1] Vic Mitchell, Corris & Vale of Rheidol (Middleton Press, 2009) p. 90

Class 319 (BREL York Cross-Country "Thameslink" 4-car)

The Class 319 EMUs were built for "Thameslink" cross-London services in the late 1980s being dual voltage so they could operate North and South of the river [1]. The 319 is based on the Class 317 EMU though has a modified front end without a gangway connection, it retains a door for emergency evacuation in tunnels as they have to travel through such especially when crossing London.

Number built: 344 (86 4-car sets)
Built: 1987-90
Builder: BREL York
Engine: 4 GEC G315BZ traction motors (750V DC third rail or 25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 1, 327 hp (990 kW)
Formation: 319/0: Driving Trailer Standard Open (DTSO)+
Motor Standard Open (MSO)+Trailer Standard Open Lavatory
319/1: Driving Trailer Composite Open (DTCO)+MSO+TSOL+DTSO

The class was built in 2 batches, 319/0 and 319/1 which had some first class accommodation plus an improved pantograph. In the 1990s some 319/0s were converted to 319/2 standard with low-density seating and a disabled toilet for London Victoria services through to Brighton. Some 319/1s have also had their first class seating removed during refurbishment to become 319/3. Some 319/0s have also had first class seating added and a lower density seating arrangement for Bedford-Brighton services as 319/4.

One feature unique to 319s was an area behind one of the cabs was fitted with fold down seats and made securable with a lockable door in order to carry mail [2]. This area was removed during refurbishment and the ceasing of transporting mail by train.

Class 319s remain on Thameslink services though they are in the process of being replaced by the Class 700 [3]. There is much life remaining in these units though and a number have already been cascaded to the North West (Northern) and South Midlands (London Midland). They could also have a new life as electro-diesel or bi-mode multiple units! A bi-mode version of the 319 called the 319 Flex (Class 769) is currently being developed by Brush. Diesel engines and alternators will be carried under the driving cars and these would feed the unit's traction motors with the electricity needed when away from third rail or overhead lines. It is hoped the Class 769 will enter passenger service with Northern and elsewhere in Spring 2018 [4][5].

One notable event in the life of the 319s came in 1994 when 319 008 and 319 009 became the first trains to carry passengers through the Channel Tunnel [6].
Northern 319 377 at Liverpool Lime Street

Northern 319 367 at St Helens Central

London Midland 319 457 at Milton Keynes Central

Northern 319 371 at Huyton

Northern 319 383 and 319 377 at Liverpool Lime Street

Thameslink 319 433 at Blackfriars

[1] Brian Haresnape & Alec Swain, Third Rail DC Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1989) p. 85
[2] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 251
[3] "Class 700s Branch Out", Railways Illustrated No. 161 (July 2016)
[4] "B-Mode Class 319 Flex from Porterbrook", Railways Illustrated No. 169 (March 2017)
[5] "Northern to get bi-modes", Modern Railways (February 2017)
[6] Southern E-Group: Class 319 <>