Class 230 D-Train

The Class 230 is an up-cycled multiple-unit made from former London Underground D78 Stock which was withdrawn by London Underground in 2017. Vivarail bought one hundred and fifty driving motors (DM) and three hundred carriages (T) from London Underground with the aim of converting them into diesel multiple units for use on National Rail. As the project has progressed Vivarail have also built battery and diesel-hybrid prototypes the latter of which will be used by the second customer Transport for Wales.

Number built: 26 (2 and 3-car sets)*
Built: 1979-1983 (Original D78)
2015- (Conversions)
Builder: (Original) Metro-Cammell
(Conversions) Vivarail
Motor: (DMU) Ford Duratorq diesel
Power: 800 hp (600 kW)

The first conversion was a diesel-electric multiple unit which uses Ford Duratorq diesels. The prototype began testing in the Summer of 2016 with mainline testing beginning later in the year. Unfortunately in December the prototype unit caught fire near Kenilworth delaying the project. However the long-awaited breakthrough first order came for three units from London Northwestern Railway. LNWR have bought three two-car sets for use on the Marston Vale line [1] between Bletchley and Bedford. The Class 230 finally entered revenue service on this line at the end of April 2019.

Vivarail began tests of a battery powered version of the Class 230 on the Bo'ness and Kinnell Railway in late 2018 [2]. The battery version has four 106kWh battery arrays and an operational range between charges of sixty four kilometres.

The second order for the Class 230 is for five three-car sets for the Borderlands Line (between Wrexham and Bidston) operated by Transport for Wales. These will be diesel-hybrid units and could enter service later in 2019 [3].
LNWR 230 004 at Kempston Hardwick

230 004 at Ridgmont

Aboard the 230

230 004 arrives at Kempston Hardwick

The LNWR 230 retains some touches of it's LU heritage
230 004 at Bletchley

* including units on order

[1] Underground News No. 688 (April 2019) p. 196
[2] Underground News No. 684 (December 2018) p. 676
[3] "Rolling stock challenges", Modern Railway (May 2019) p. 52

Class 31 (Brush Traction 1,470hp Type 2 Diesel-Electric)

The popular Class 31 is the last surviving Type 2 diesel locomotive in national rail service with a small number remaining in mainline service today. Originally they were known as the Class 30 and were amongst the earliest diesel locomotives to enter service with British Railways following the decision to replace steam. When first designed they had just two windows on the cab ends with a look similar to the likes of the Class 21 but the design was amended to have three windows due to the need to fit gangway doors [1]. When delivered the locomotives had a BR green livery with horizontal lines to aid the impression of speed (see photo of D5581 below).

Number built: 263
Built: 1957-62
Builder: Brush Traction
Motor: Mirrlees JVS12T
later changed to English Electric 12SVT diesel
Power: 1, 470 hp (1, 100 kW)
Wheel Arrangement: A1A-A1A

The original Mirrlees JVS12T engines gave British Railways a lot of trouble as the engines began to develop metal fatigue after just a few years service. It is thought that uprating the engines may have been to blame as the originally rated engines did not develop as many faults. The original pilot-scheme locomotives were rated at 1, 250hp but later production batch locomotives were uprated to 1, 365 hp and beyond. One was even uprated to 2, 000hp and became a Type 4!

Eventually the decision was made to give the entire class more reliable English Electric powerplants instead in the mid 1960s [2] and so they became the Class 31. The Class 31 has the unusual A1A-A1A wheel arrangement which means the middle axle in each bogie is unpowered.

As true mixed traffic locomotives Class 31s could be found on regional and secondary passenger services, freights and engineering trains and have survived into the privatised era. Nowadays they are mainly seen on spot hires and engineering trains [3]. Less than a handful remain in mainline service but around twenty-six have been preserved.

31/0 Original pilot-scheme batch of twenty, non-standard control equipment
31/1 Main production variant
31/4 With Electric Train Heating (ETH)
31/5 Former 31/4s with ETH isolated
31/6 Wired for ETH but without equipment
Although numbered 31 018 this was the first of the class built, preserved at the NRM

D5581 as 97 205 preserved in pseudo-RTC livery, at Princes Risborough

Preserved 5580 at Kidderminster SVR

Preserved 31 270 in Regional Railways livery at Rowsley South

DCR 31 452 at Bewdley

An earlier shot of D5581 at Chinnor showing it in original BR green livery

[1] David Lawrence, British Rail Designed 1948-97 (Ian Allan, 2016) p. 124
[2] Brian Haresnape, Production Diesel-Electrics Types 1-3 (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 48
[3] Colin J Marsden, Traction Recognition (Second Edition) (Ian Allan, 2009) p. 20

Paisley District Tramways Company

The Paisley District Tramways Company began operations in 1903 taking over from an earlier company which had operated horse-drawn trams. Electric tram operations began in 1904 [1] and the network covered over thirty kilometres. The company was unable to return a dividend to it's investors and was taken over by Glasgow Corporation Tramways in 1923. Trams continued to run in Paisley until the late 1950s.

Information for No. 68 (1068)
Built: 1919
Builder: Hurst Nelson
Motor: 2 Metropolitan-Vickers 101DR electric motors
Power: 120 hp (89 kW)

The Paisley District Tramways Company had an eventual fleet of seventy-two trams most of which were taken over by the Glasgow Corporation. The preserved tram No. 1068 (68 in Paisley service) only had a short life with it's original company. It entered service in 1919, a short double-decker tram with an open top deck (the most common type of tram operated by Paisley). The tram was based on the M Class tram of the London County Council Tramway. The tram was heavily modified by Glasgow, adding a top cover, enclosed balconies and a new truck and motors. The tram was withdrawn in 1953 and preserved and has been partially restored to original condition.

Another ex-Paisley tram (No. 17 a single decker) has also been preserved at the Museum of Scottish Industry Life. Number 16 has also been preserved and is at Glasgow Bus Museum.
1068 at Crich

1068 carries Glasgow Corporation livery

Another view of 1068 (left)

[1] Charles Knapper, The Golden Age of Tramways (David & Charles, 1974) p. 214

Class 357 Electrostar

The Class 357 was built to modernise services on the London, Tilbury & Southend line out of London Fenchurch Street [1]. Two batches of this EMU, part of the "Electrostar" family, were built which have the same front end of the Turbostar DMUs like the Class 168. They were built to replace Class 312s and allow other EMUs to be cascaded to other routes.

Number built: 269 (74 4-car sets)
Built: 1999-2002
Builder: Adtranz / Bombardier
Motor: Adtranz traction motors (25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 2, 010 hp (1, 500 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)+Motor Standard Open (MSO)+
Pantograph Trailer Standard Open Lavatory (PTSOL)+DMSO

The original batch of 46 sets is known as the 357/0 and were built in the late 1990s though production and reliability problems delayed their entry into service for a number of years. A second batch of 22 sets was ordered to replace the remaining 312s, these are the 357/2s and entered service in the early 2000s.

A number of these have been modified to 357/3 standard which includes more space by changing the 3+2 seating to 2+2 (reducing the number of seats of course) and with a revised interior design. All 357s have been upgraded with regenerative braking.

357 013 at Southend Central

All are operated by c2c, though some have been loaned to NX East Anglia for a time. They are due to be replaced by c2c in the early 2120s though could find new work elsewhere.
357 001 at West Ham

357 021 at Fenchurch St

357 314 at Limehouse

357 208 at Leigh-in-Sea

357 008 passes Shadwell
[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 272

Leeds City Transport Prototype Single Decker Tram

While other cities were beginning to dismantle their worn-out street tram networks in the early 1950s Leeds was looking at modernising their network. They built two prototype single decker trams similar to the type used on the Continent [1]. The aim was to build a fleet of two hundred of these trams to replace their existing double-decker trams. Unfortunately these plans came to naught and the extensive Leeds tram network was closed in 1959.

Number built: 2
Built: 1953
Builder: Charles H Roe
Motor: 4 Crompton Parkinson CP92B2 electric motors (DC OHLE)
Power: 180 hp (134 kW)

The trams were built by Charles H Roe of Leeds with bogie trucks by Maley & Taunton and electric equipment by Compton Parkinson. The two trams differed in the brakes used. Tram 601 had air and magnetic brakes and 602 electric brakes with am Allen West VAMBAC controller which combined braking and acceleration, though it was later fitted with a foot activated brake to avoid roll back on gradients. Tram 602 has been preserved at the National Tramway Museum. It's service life was short, it was withdrawn in 1957 and was preserved in 1960.
602 at Crich

602 has central doors

The Fischer Bow collector can be seen here, this was common for Leeds trams

[1] Charles Knapper, The Golden Age of Tramways (David & Charles, 1961) p. 126

Derby Lightweight DMU

This first wave of British Railways Diesel Multiple Units (which appeared even before the Modernisation Plan) were known as the "Derby Lightweights" because they were built at BR Derby and had low weight thanks to aluminium bodies and short under frames [1]. The first batch consisted of eight 2-car sets for Leeds-Bradford services and were an instant hit with the public, passenger receipts on the services they were used on increasing 400% in seven years.

Similar improvements with revenue were seen across the board after the introduction of later DMUs. Both cars in this initial batch were powered with Leyland engines and had torque converter transmission. Mechanically these units were based on pre-war LMS designs and proved troublesome in service [2].

Number built: 217 (1, 2 and 4-car sets)
Built: 1954-55
Builder: BR Derby
Motor: Leyland or BUT (AEC) 6-cyl horizontal diesels
Power: (Leyland) 250hp (186kW) (BUT) 300 hp (224 kW)
Formation: (Preserved set) Driving Motor Brake Standard (DMBS)
+Driving Trailer Composite Lavatory (DTCL)

The second batch were built in a variety of configurations (the single railcars have been dealt with separately). They were fitted with BUT (AEC) diesels and had a different transmission and gearbox (fluid flywheel and preselector gearbox). This arrangement proved more reliable and popular with BR and indeed became the standard for the hundreds of BR DMUs which followed in the 1950s and 1960s.

Being non-standard the Derby Lightweight DMUs were withdrawn fairly early and all had gone from revenue service by 1969. However a 2-car set and a railcar survived into departmental use. The 2-car set became an ultrasonic test train and traversed the entire network returning data on track conditions [3]. Following withdrawal in the mid-1980s it has been preserved and in the process of being restored.
M79018 at Wirksworth

Restoration continues

M79018 at Wirksworth (a Class 122 to the left)

Another view of M79018

[1] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Multiple Units: The First Generation (Ian Allan, 1985) p. 22
[2] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 26
[3] Colin J Marsden, Departmental Stock (Ian Allan, 1984) p. 28

Sollinger Hütte Klv43 (Croydon Tramlink 058)

Croydon Tramlink 058 has had a varied service life. It was originally built in 1978 for Deutsche Bahn as DB Netz 53 0692 for it's fleet of track maintenance and construction vehicles, the Klv43 being the most highly produced vehicle of this type for DB with eight hundred and twenty four built over a long period.

53 0692 was sold to Croydon Tramlink and renumbered 058 to do a similar job in 2006 though only lasted with the modern day London Transport tram operator until 2009. It was then sold to Crich Tramway Museum where it is in regular service helping to maintain the museum tramway network.

Number built: 1 (transferred to Croydon Tramlink)
Built: 1978
Builder: Sollinger Hütte
Motor: KHD F6L 413F 6-cyl diesel
Power: 148 hp (110 kW) 

Tramlink 058 is diesel powered allowing it to be used when the overhead electric current is turned off. It is fitted with a powered Atlas crane. Tramlink 058 is accompanied by the flatbed trailer Tramlink 061 (DB Nets 53 0692-3).
058 and 061 at Crich

Both are still in the colour and livery they last carried for Croydon Tramlink

Side view, 058 can also carry supplies

Rear view, both vehicles were re-gauged when they arrived at Crich

Class 390 Pendolino

The Class 390 replaced locomotive hauled services out of London Euston following modernisation of the West Coast Main Line [1]. The trains incorporate tilting technology which allowed speeds to be increased to 125mp/h and in many ways are the trains the Class 370 APT could have been if the technical problems on that train had been solved in the 1980s. The Class 390, known as the Pendolino, is capable of 140 mp/h but signalling and line restrictions have meant that service speeds are limited (though 145 mp/h has been reached).

Number built: 574 cars (57 9 and 11 car sets)
Built: 2001-12
Builder: Alstom (Washwood Heath and Italy)
Motor: 2 Alstom ONIX 800 traction motors per motor car (25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 390/0: 6 ,839 hp (5 ,100 kW)
390/1: 8, 763 hp (6, 557 kW)
Formation: 390/0: Driving Motor Restaurant First (DMRF)+Motor First (MF)+
Pantograph Trailer First (PTF)+Motor Standard (MS)+
Trailer Standard (TS)+MS+Pantograph Trailer Standard
Restaurant Buffet (PTSRMS)+
MS+Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)

The original order was for fifty-three 8-car sets, these were later strengthened to 9-cars and a number of 11-car sets have also been built to try and meet an increase in demand on the WCML.

All are in daily service apart from one set which was written off in the Grayrigg fatal rail derailment in 2007 [2]. The strength of the train was commended with it having improved crashworthiness compared to earlier trains. All are operated by Virgin Trains.
390 010 at Milton Keynes Central

390 141 at Stafford, the covering over the coupling is not present

390 153 at London Euston

390 124 at Crewe

Passing through Hampton-in-Arden

Heading through Marston Green bound for London

[1] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 296
[2] RAIB Report, Derailment at Grayrigg <>