Class 67 [Updated]

The Class 67 is a mixed traffic locomotive originally intended for 125mp/h operation on postal trains and other exclusive services like the Royal Train [1]. By the time they had arrived from Spain the intended post services had gone so they have been involved on charter, passenger and other general duties instead. When they arrived they were restricted to 110 mp/h because of the high axle load but bogie modifications have restored their design speed. Problems with exceeding the loading gauge also delayed their introduction into service.

Number built: 30
Built: 1999-2000
Builder: Alstom Meinfesta / General Motors
Engine: GM 12N-710G3B-EC diesel
Power: 3, 200 hp (2, 386 kW)
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

A major duty for the Class 67 has been on Chiltern Railway's expresses from London to the Midlands though they were replaced by newer Class 68s. They can often be seen around the network but maybe arn't utilised heavily enough to justify the high cost of building and bringing them over.
Royal Train allocated 67 006 at Derby

EWS liveried 67 008 at Birmingham Moor Street

67 010 brings a charter into Bridgnorth

DB liveried 67 018 at Birmingham Snow Hill

[1] Colin J Marsden, Traction Recognition (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 76

Network Rail High Definition Switches and Crossings Video Inspection Train

The fleet of Windhoff built Multiple Purpose Vehicles (MPVs) perform a wide variety of departmental duties for Network Rail and supporting companies. One specialist MPV is the High Definition Switches & Crossings Video Inspection Train DR 98008 which originally was part of Network Rail's fleet of Overhead Line MPVs[1]. This is a double cab single car vehicle (most MPVs have cabs at one end only and operate in pairs).

Number built: 1
Built: 1999-2001, 2012
Builder: Windhoff
Engine: 2 Railpac diesel engines
Power: 710 hp (530 kW)

It is used by Network Rail's Asset Information department with visual inspection equipment especially for switches and crossings (pointwork in other words). It is also fitted with a version of the Plain Line Pattern Recognition (PLPR) system, which compares video footage of the track with a database of track fixings so broken fixings and irregularities can be detected [2], for switches and crossings. It is also fitted with a track geometry system.
DR 98008 at Derby
Full length view
[1] Colin J Marsden, Rail Guide 2013 (Ian Allan, 2013) p.204
[2] "DR98009" On Track Plant,

Class 74

In the late 1960s Southern Region required some more electro-diesels for the Bournemouth electrification scheme. Instead of building more Class 73s BR decided to rebuild 10 Class 71 DC electric locomotives as these could be more powerful than the Class 73s and rebuilds were thought to be cheaper than building new locomotives [1]. As with other Southern locomotives they could work in multiple with multiple units and other SR locomotives and be used for push-pull operations.

Number built: 10
Built: 1958-60 (Electric locomotives)
1967-68 (Rebuilds)
Builder: BR Doncaster, rebuilds at BR Crewe
Engine: 4 EE532A traction motors (750v DC third rail)
Paxman 6YJXL diesel
Power: 2, 300 hp (1, 715 kW) electric
650 hp (485 kW) diesel
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

While the Class 74 seemed a great idea the execution let it down. The conversions were not simple with a lot of modifications and strengthening needed to fit the additional equipment [2]. Reliability in the early days was poor, the Paxman diesel not being as reliable as the English Electric unit in the Class 73, there were numerous problems with the complicated control equipment (the Class 74s were test beds for new thyristor controls [3]) and crews disliked the noise of the engine due to the location of the engine silencer near the cab.

By the late 1970s SR saw it had enough Class 33s and 73s to cover traffic requirements and the Class 74s were withdrawn by 1977 as non-standard. All have been scrapped though a Class 71 has been preserved.
74 009, location unknown (KD Collection)

[1] Brian Haresnape, Electric Locomotives (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 78
[2] David Brown, Southern Electric Vol 2 (Capital Transport, 2010) p. 220
[3] R.L. Vickers, DC Electric Trains and Locomotives in the British Isles (David & Charles, 1983) p. 81

Class 312

The Class 312 was based on the earlier Class 310 and built for the Great Northern Line from Kings Cross to Royston, the Great Eastern and also 4 sets for the West Coast Main Line [1]. The Class 312 was the last Mark 2 based EMU to be built by British Rail. It was also the last new build with slam doors to be built.

Number built: 196 (49 4-car sets)
Built: 1975-78
Builder: BREL York
Engine: 4 EE546A traction motors (6.25 (312/1 only) / 25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 1, 080 hp (810 kW)
Formation: Battery Driving Trailer Standard Open Lavatory (BDTSOL)+
Motor Brake Standard Open (MBSO)+Trailer Standard Open (TSO)+
Driving Trailer Composite Open Lavatory (DTCOL)

Twenty six sets were allocated to the Great Northern as 312/0 but they were transferred to the Great Eastern due to their unsuitability for driver only operation [2]. Sets for GE Liverpool Street services were fitted for dual voltage (6.25 as well as 25 kV AC) as 312/1. The WCML sets (312/2) were restricted to 75mp/h running so they could run in multiple with the Class 310. When they were later transferred to join the rest of the fleet on Great Eastern the speed restriction was removed.

By the end of the 1980s the fleet was concentrated on the Great Eastern and London, Tilbury & Southend Railway. In the privatised era some returned to the WCML and were operated by Central Trains, the rest were operated by c2c, First Great Eastern and LTS Rail. At the turn of the century they were gradually withdrawn from service with the last being withdrawn in 2004, the fact they were Mark 2 based and having slam doors meaning they had shorter lives than some EMUs have had. Two cars have been preserved at the Electric Railway Museum.
78037 at the Electric Railway Museum

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 232
[2] Alec Swain, Overhead Line Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1990) p. 59

Class 82

The Class 82 (or AL2) was another of the 5 classes of locomotive built for the West Coast Main Line electrification. The Class 82 used Metropolitan-Vickers equipment though the locomotive building was sub-contracted out to Beyer Peacock [1]. The Class 82 used a number of components in common with the Class 81 though were overweight to British Rail's specification due to a sturdier more traditional method of construction. To get back within the weight limit some parts of the structure were replaced with aluminium or fibre glass and lighter versions of some items of electrical equipment were fitted [2].

Number built: 10
Built: 1960-62
Builder: Beyer Peacock / Metropolitan-Vickers
Engine: 4 Metropolitan-Vickers 189Z traction motors (6.25 / 25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 3, 300 hp (2, 460 kW) continuous
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

Although they also had problems with their mercury-arc rectifiers like some of the other early electric locomotives they had less problems with them though the rectifiers were replaced with silicon-diode as with the other classes in the early 1970s. One problem the Class 82 did have at times was a tendency to overheat when stationary if the equipment was still running due to inadequate ventilation [3].

One was withdrawn due to fire damage in 1966, another in 1971, but the rest survived into the 1980s but began to be withdrawn as sufficient more modern traction was available. Two survived (along with 2 Class 83s) on Euston empty stock movements until 1987. One (82 008) has been preserved.
82 005, photographer unknown

82 008, photographer unknown

[1] Gavin Morrison, AC Electric Locomotives (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 11
[2] Brian Haresnape, Electric Locomotives (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 49
[3] Morrison p. 11

LU 1983 Tube Stock [Updated]

The 1983 Tube Stock must rate as one of the least successful types of train London Underground has operated in recent decades. While most types of stock have long careers (often into their fourth decades) the 1983ts entered service in 1984 but only lasted until 1998 with some stock only having about 10 years service. The stock was built for the new Fleet Line which became the Jubilee Line when it opened in 1979. The stock was built in 2 batches with 15 6-car sets ordered in 1982 and a second batch of 16 and a half in 1986 [1].

Number built: 189 (31½ 6-car sets)
Built: 1983-86
Builder: Metro-Cammell
Engine: Brush LT122 traction motors
Power: 960 hp (720 kW) (630v DC fourth rail)
Formation: Driving Motor (DM)+Trailer (T)+DM+[DM+T+DM]

The 1983ts was based on the sub-surface D78 Stock in some ways including the use of single leaf doors [2]. When the trains were being designed passenger levels on the tube were in decline but levels picked up dramatically after the trains were built. The single-leaf doors proved to be a problem for slow unloading and loading at stations, the resulting increased dwell times causing numerous problems on the line. There were also problems with reliability of the electrical equipment. The 1983ts bought with it a number of technical innovations such as Kiepe design traction equipment[3], unfortunately many of them proved to be unsuccessful.

When the Jubilee Line Extension was being planned in the 1990s the initial plan was to refurbish and upgrade the 1983ts to match the new 1996 Tube Stock then being designed for the Jubilee. In the end though it was thought cheaper to withdraw the 1983ts and just run 1996ts on the line. The 1983ts was withdrawn from the Jubilee in the Summer of 1998.

There were attempts to re-use these (relatively) new trains. One plan was for them to go to the Piccadilly but this proved to be too expensive. They were also considered for the Isle of Wight Island Line but were considered too "digital" and the Island Line decided to hold out for 1973 Tube Stock instead (they are still waiting). Some cars have been preserved including 4 cars used as artists studios on top of a building in Shoreditch. Others are used for emergency services training in Sunderland and Derbyshire. Some stored stock was only removed and scrapped in 2015 though it had been badly vandalised by then.
Preserved 3734 at Acton Depot

Interior of 3734

Cab of 3734

3733 and 3662 in Shoreditch

[1] John Glover, ABC London Underground (Ian Allan, 1997) p. 63
[2] J. Graeme Bruce, The London Underground Tube Stock (Ian Allan, 1988) p. 120
[3] D.K. Ware, "London's 1983 Tube Stock", Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers Vol 198D:11, p. 158

Clayton Devonport Locomotives RTU 1 & 2

These 2 locomotives were built for the Royal Navy in 2000 by Clayton Equipment and spend their time at Devonport. One can imagine the cargos they handle (which is no doubt top secret) are often very sensitive! The locomotives, which are known as Dennis (RTU 1) and Henry (RTU 2) [1], have a Clarke hydraulic transmission and a Clayton spur and bevel final drive [2]. One interesting feature of the shunters is that they have 2 sets of buffers at different heights.

Number built: 2
Built: 2000
Builder: Clayton Equipment
Engine: Deutz BF6M1013E diesel
Power: 194 hp (145 kW)
Wheel arrangement: 4wDM

RTU 2 Henry at Wirksworth

Front view of RTU 2 Henry, on trial after an overhaul at Clayton

[1] Industrial Locomotives 13EL (IRS, 2003) p. 66
[2] Ray King, An Introduction to British Industrial Diesel Locomotives (Traction & Rolling Stock Advertiser, 2006) p. 16

Class 370 [Updated]

The Advanced Passenger Train (APT) project begun in the early 1970s was supposed to be the future of InterCity travel on British Rail, so much so that the High Speed Train was seen as a bit of a stop-gap. The APT unfortunately never came to fruition despite over a decade of development and failed to enter service though the Class 370 came (fairly) close.

Number built: 44 (6 7-car sets - though making 3 trains + 2 spares)
Built: 1977-78
Builder: BR Derby / ASEA
Engine: 4 ASEA/LJMA 410F traction motors (25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 4, 000 hp (2, 983 kW) (per power car - 2 are used in a train)
Formation: Driving Trailer Second (DTS)+Trailer Second (TS)+Trailer Unclassified
(Restaurant) (TU)+Trailer Buffet Second (TRSB)+Trailer First (TF)+
Trailer Brake First (TBF)+Non-Driving Motor (M)+

The Class 370 was an EMU which built on the experience gained from the gas-turbine powered APT-E in the early 1970s [1]. The Class 370, often referred to as the APT-P, was designed to be able to travel at 125mp/h along the West Coast Main Line, the coaches tilting to allow for the increased speed on legacy tracks. The tilting unfortunately proved the APT's Achilles Heel causing a lot of trouble. The project was finally cancelled in the mid-1985s. It was not a complete waste however as some of the technology developed was later used on the InterCity 225 and also used on the Pendolino sets which now run on the WCML (among other places) - though these were not built in the UK.

Each of the 6 Class 370 sets built consisted of 7 vehicles, a non-driving motor car and 6 passenger carrying cars. Two sets made up an in-service rake with the 2 motor cars being in the centre of the train.

The Class 370 had a number of "interesting" features, notably the train's power cars which had no passenger gangway access meaning that there was no passenger access between the 2 halves of the train while in motion (and also wasted a lot of platform space). Buffet facilities therefore had to be duplicated. The limitations of the central power cars were well known during testing and a production (or "squadron service") version of the Class 370 would have had a single power car at one end of the train. In the end this is what was used on the Class 91.

Seven cars have been preserved including a 6-car rake at the Crewe Heritage Centre and a Motor car at the Electric Railway Museum.
370 003 at Crewe Heritage Centre

Interior view
Cab view

Preserved Motor car at the Electric Railway Museum, inset shows data panel

[1] Brian Haresnape, High Speed Trains (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 70

Class 83

As with the early diesel locomotives British Railways ordered a number of different AC electric locomotives in small batches (for a total of 100 locomotives) for the electrification of the West Coast Main Line. Unlike the diesels however BR exerted a lot more control over the Classes 81 to 85 which looked very similar but differed in internal equipment used. Fifteen of the 100 locomotives ordered were by English Electric as the AL3 later Class 83. Unfortunately while English Electric diesel locomotives were hard to beat the Class 83 disappointed [1].

Number built: 15
Built: 1960-62
Builder: English Electric Vulcan Foundry
Engine: 4 EE435A traction motors (25kV AC OLHE)
Power: 2, 950 hp (2, 200 kW)
Wheel arrangement: Bo-Bo

The Class 83s were lighter (three tons less than the Class 82 for example) and less powerful than the other prototype classes though English Electric considered this a virtue as it made them cheaper to build, a quarter of the price of a Deltic! The main weakness of the Class 83 was with their mercury-arc rectifiers which gave a lot of trouble and a time in the late 60s the entire class was put into storage [2].

In the early 1970s they were restored into service with silicon-diode rectifiers and continued in service until the early 1980s their relative lack of power compared to other electric locomotives saw them surplus to requirements and withdrawals began. A few managed to survive in service until the end of the decade on Euston empty coaching stock duties and even received Intercity livery. One of these 83 012 has been preserved.
83 013, locations and photographer in all photos unknown
83 012 in Intercity livery
83 015 looking a bit worse for wear

[1] Gavin Morrison, AC Electric Locomotives in Colour (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 13
[2] Brian Haresnape, Electric Locomotives (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 53

Class 317 [Updated]

The Class 317 EMU is another class of multiple unit based on the Mark 3 coach design similar to the Classes 150 and 455 among others. Built in the early 1980s they are hard working veterans still carrying thousands of passengers daily into London. The 317 was the first British Rail multiple unit designed for driver only operation though this did result in a delay in their introduction into service because of a dispute with the unions [1][2]. All of the 317's service life to date has been on suburban services to London from the likes of Bedford, Luton and Cambridge though for a time in the late 1980s they did venture as far afield as Birmingham.

Number built: 288 (72 4-car sets)
Built: 1981-82, 1985-86
Builder: BREL York
Engine: 4 GEC G315BZ traction motors (25kV AC OLHE)
Power: 1, 328 hp (990 kW)
Formation: Driving Trailer Standard Open (DTSO)+Motor Standard Open (MSO)+
Trailer Composite Open (TCO)+DTSO

The Class 317 was built in two batches, the first batch 317/1 was built for St Pancras to Bedford services. A second batch 317/2 was built a little later for services out of Kings Cross. In the late 1990s some units were refurbished and upgraded, including fitting a new pantograph, as the 317/6. In the mid-2000s some 317s were refurbished as 317/7 for the Stansted Express, 317/5 for Greater Anglia services while others were refurbished and updated as 317/8.

Despite a long life already the 317 could remain in service for another 20 years with plans for a major rebuild and refurbishment and the fitting of new traction motors and equipment however if this life extension does take place it will be on different rails to where they are at present. They are due to be replaced by new Electrostar and Aventra EMUs from current routes over the next couple of years.

317 652 at Cambridge Heath

317 667 at Liverpool Street

Another view of 317 652 at Cambridge Heath
[1] Alec Swain, Overhead Line Electric Multiple-Units (Ian Allan, 1990) p. 71
[2] John Glover, BR Diary 1978-1985 (Ian Allan, 1985) p. 81

Class 310

The Class 310 was built for high-density semi-fast services along the West Coast Main Line from London to Northampton and Birmingham [1]. The 310s were the first EMUs based on the Mark 2 coach had a lot of effort put into them by British Rail, the exterior design was thanks to the Design Panel and used curved glass on the windscreens (later a maintenance nightmare and was replaced by flat glass), a lot of work was put into the quality of the ride and the 310s were the first series built multiple units to have disc brakes [2].

Number built: 200 (50 4-car sets)
Built: 1965-67
Builder: BR Derby
Engine: 4 EE546A traction motors (25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 1, 080 hp (810 kW)
Formation: (310/0) Battery Driving Trailer Standard Open Lavatory (BDTSOL)+
Motor Brake Standard Open (MBSO)+Trailer Standard Open (TSO)+
Driving Trailer Composite Open Lavatory) DTCOL

All 310s were originally 4-car sets, later a number was reduced to 3 car sets (310/1) for use on local services around Birmingham. The 310/0s later worked on the London, Tilbury and Southend line after being replaced on the WCML. In the post-privatisation era they were operated by LTS Rail and Central Trains but all were withdrawn by 2002. Unfortunately none have been preserved.
Regional Railways 310 109 at Barking (Photographer unknown)

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 230
[2] Alec Swain, Overhead Line Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1990) p. 52

Class 316 and 457

To help develop the Class 465 "Networker" multiple-unit BR took 4 coaches from the Class 210 DEMU and used them as a test bed, firstly as the Class 457 for DC third rail and later as the Class 316 for AC overhead [1]. The former Class 210s were converted at RTC Derby and then ran for a while on Southern Region. The 457s were fitted with three-phase traction motors which allowed for significant energy savings over earlier types of motor [2].

Number built: 4 (1 4-car set)
Built: 1989-90 (Class 210s originally built 1981)
Builder: BREL Derby
Engine: Brush three-phase traction motors (750v DC third rail (457) 25kV AC OHLE (316))
Power: 1, 140 hp (850 kW) 
Formation: (457) Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)+Trailer Standard Open (TSO)+TSO+DMSO
(316) DMSO+Pantograph Trailer Standard Open (PTSO)+TSO+DMSO

Later they returned to Derby and were converted to AC traction by inserting a PTSO from a Class 313 and worked AC electrified lines North of the Thames. Of the 4 cars used 2 have been converted to and form part of Class 455/9 EMUs, and 67300 has been preserved.
67300 at the Electric Railway Museum

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 355
[2] Alec Swain, Overhead Line Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1990) p. 80

Class 23

The success of the revolutionary Deltic diesel engine and the Deltic prototype saw British Railways explore the possibility of putting a single cut-down version of the engine in a smaller mixed-traffic locomotive in the Type B (later 2) power classification. The Class 23 "Baby Deltic" was hence born for services on the Great Northern network [1]. With hindsight the experiment and resulting small fleet of Type 2 locomotives was an unnecessary mistake. There was found to be no real advantage over similar sized locomotives with traditional diesel engines but the Deltic also bought with it extra complexity and cost [2]. The Baby Deltics owed little to their larger brethren except for the engine technology and in design and cab terms owed a lot to the Class 40.

Number built: 10
Built: 1959
Builder: English Electric
Engine: Napier T9-29 Deltic diesel
Power: 1, 100 hp (820 kW)
Formation: Bo-Bo

The fleet was refurbished in 1963 and modernised with a 4 character headcode replacing the original headcode discs and gangway doors [3]. They continued to serve though had high maintenance costs and passengers and crews found they had excessive noise and fumes in operation. With these disadvantages and being such a tiny fleet there was no way the Baby Deltics could survive the fleet rationalisation at the end of the 1960s and all were withdrawn from normal service by 1971. One survived with the Railway Technical Centre and hauled test trains until 1975 [4] but was scrapped like the rest of the class. No Baby Deltics now exist though the Baby Deltic Project aim one day to built a replica.
D5901 at Doncaster in 1959, photographer unknown

[1] John Vaughan, Diesels on the Eastern (Ian Allan, 1982) p. 31
[2] Brian Haresnape, Early Prototype and Pilot Scheme Diesel-Electrics (Ian Allan, 1981) p. 72
[3] Haresnape p. 75
[4] Colin J. Marsden, 25 Years of Railway Research (OPC, 1989) p. 67

Class 489 1-GLV [Updated]

The Class 489 1-GLV is a motorised luggage van converted out of Phase 2 Class 414 2-HAP motor cars for use on the Gatwick Express push-pull service [1]. In service the Class 489 formed one end of a train which consisted of Class 488 rolling stock and a Class 73 as primary motive power though the Class 489 also has traction motors on one bogie [2]. The formation served on the Gatwick Express until 2005.

The Class 489s were gutted internally and had rebuilt bodysides with 3 pairs of swing doors on either side. One end of the unit has a gangway to allow the guard full access to the train though the driving end does not.

Number built: 10
Built: 1983 (conversion) 1956 (original)
Builder: BR Eastleigh 
Engine: 2 EE507 traction motors (660-750v DC third rail)
Power: 500 hp (370 kW)
Formation: Gatwick Luggage Van (GLV)

Following withdrawal half the class have been preserved though none are in running order with 3 also serving with Network Rail as de-icing units. Two of the preserved Class 489s are on the Ecclesbourne Valley Railway where they serve as a buffet and a museum!
9101 at Wirksworth

9107 at Wirksworth
Corridor end of 9101

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 372
[2] Brian Haresnape & Alec Swain, Third Rail DC Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1989) p. 89

Class 485 4-VEC [Updated]

In the 1960s, as with other railway lines across the country, the Isle of Wight's once extensive railway system was devastated by Dr Beeching. Indeed only one line was saved which ran from Ryde to Shanklin. BR decided to modernise and electrify this line (to the Southern Region 630V DC third rail system) in the late 1960s. The problem however was the question of which stock to run on it? Tunnels at Ryde have always precluded the use of standard gauge stock on the island due to the limited clearance. In the end there was a very British solution: use former London tube stock! [1]

Number built: 24 cars (converted) to form 4 car sets
Built: 1923
Converted 1966-67
Builder: Metro Cammell / Union Construction Company / Cammell Laird
Converted at LT Acton / BR Stewarts Lane
Engine: 4 English Electric traction motors (630V DC third rail)
Power: 960 hp (716 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Brake Standard Open (DMBSO)+T
railer Standard Open (TSO)*+TSO+DMBSO

* Some TSOs had an isolated driving cab, officially DTSOs

The Class 485, and its 3-car sister the Class 486 (originally classified as Class 452 and 451 respectively), were converted from withdrawn London Underground Pre-1938 Standard Tube stock which had already been hammered daily on the underground for over 40 years. [2] After heavy refurbishment/conversion [3] which included changing from LT 4-rail to SR 3-rail (an earlier plan to convert the stock to DMUs was mooted but later abandoned [4]), the Class 485/486s ran for a further 25 years on the Island before being replaced by the Class 483, slightly less ancient tube stock, in 1992.

The Class 485/486 entered service in 1967, painted in BR blue with yellow ends and indeed were the first full units in BR's new corporate livery. In the 1970s they were repainted in the slightly more pleasing blue and grey livery for passenger stock and they ended their lives in Network South East colours. The Class 485 was given the SR Alpha code of 4-VEC and the 486 3-TIS. When they worked in multiple they were known as 7-VECTIS, Vectis being the Roman name for the Isle of Wight. Later in their lives they were reformed as 5 car sets (5-VEC) and the 486s 2 car 2-TIS sets.

During conversion BR considered also creating dedicated parcel traffic trailers but scrapped the idea because standard luggage cages would not fit in the cars because of their tube profile [5].

No Class 486s have survived withdrawal but 2 cars (a DTSO and a TSO) from the Class 485 have survived and have been reunited at the London Transport Museum with other Standard Tube Stock cars with the eventual aim of creating a working museum train.
Former TSO trailer from 485 044 at Acton Depot, still in NSE colours!

Standard Stock driving car

Former DTSO trailer from 485 043 at Acton Depot
Cab of LU Standard Stock car

[1] Brian Hardy, Tube Trains on the Isle of Wight (Capital Transport, 2003) p. 14
[2] Brian Haresnape & Alec Swain, Third Rail DC Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1989) p. 92
[3] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 369
[4] Colin J. Marsden (ed.), "3-TIS, 4-VEC", Modern Locomotives Illustrated No. 220 August-September 2016 (BR Southern Region Electric Multiple Units), p. 48
[5] R.J. Maycock & R. Silsbury, The Isle of Wight Railways from 1923 Onwards (Oakwood Press, 2006) p. 250

Class 307 / PCV

The Class 307 EMU, originally known as the AM7, was built for Liverpool Street-Southend services. Originally they operated off 1500V DC overhead supply but in the early 1960s were converted to AC, first 6.25kV and later the standard 25kV [1]. They were built to the then-standard EPB style of Southern Region though operated on Eastern Region rails.

Number built: 128 (32 4-car sets)
Built: 1954-56
(PCV conversion) 1994-96
Builder: BR Ashford/Eastleigh
(PCV conversion) Hunslet-Barclay
Engine: 4 GEC WT44 traction motors (1500V DC OLHE later 6.25/25kV AC OLHE)
Power: 700 hp (520 kW)
Formation: (original) Driving Trailer Standard Open (DTSO)+Motor Brake Standard
(MBS)+Trailer Composite (TC)+Driving Trailer Standard (DTS)
(AC conversion) Driving Trailer Brake Standard (DTBS)+
Motor Standard (MS)+TC+DTS
(refurbished) DTBS+MS+Trailer Standard (TS)+Driving Trailer Composite (DTC)

The Class 307s were refurbished in the 1980s which introduced gangways between the vehicles, improved interiors and new bogies. They continued to be used on Great Eastern routes throughout the 1980s, some also working on the Wakefield Line for a time. All were withdrawn from passenger service in the early 1990s.

Originally it was planned to rebuild the Class 307s for parcel traffic as the Class 300 but the Class 325 was built instead for this work. However 42 were rebuilt as Propelling Control Vehicles (PCV) for use on the end of locomotive hauled mail trains (the other end from the locomotive obviously) with the cab allowing for the train to be controlled at slow speeds [2], the PCV itself is unpowered. All but 2 were withdrawn from use in the early 2000s and many scrapped though 20 remain in storage around the country. One PCV has also been preserved as well as an unconverted driving trailer as shown below.
Preserved 307 123 DTSO at the Electric Railway Museum

Front view of 123

[1] Alec Swain, Overhead Line Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1990) p. 28
[2] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 221

London Underground C69/C77 Stock

The C69 Stock was built to replace CO/CP Stock on the Circle and Hammersmith & City Lines [1]. The C69 Stock was a high density design with 4 pairs of double-doors per side to cope with the heavy demand on the Circle Line. The 212 C69 Stock cars operated in 6-car formations and 35 such formations were formed (there were a couple of spare cars) [2]. In the late 1970s a second batch of 67 cars was built to provide 11 more trains for the Edgware Road-Wimbledon branch of the District Line as the C77 Stock (an extra car was built to replace a C69 car destroyed by an IRA bomb). Although there were technical differences between the C69 and C77s they could operate together and following refurbishments in the early 1990s there were no longer any visual differences.

Number built: 279 cars (6-car sets)
Built: 1969-71, 1977-78
Builder: Metro-Cammell
Engine: 4 Brush LT117 traction motors per motor car (630v DC fourth rail)
Formation: Driving Motor (DM)+Trailer(T)+DM+T+T+DM

The C69 Stock was designed with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) in mind though this was never fitted [3]. They were later converted to One Man Operation (OMO) in the early 1980s and were the first LU stock to do so and do away with guards. When built the C Stock had longitudinal and transverse seating though the later was removed during refurbishment in the early 1990s [4] in common with other LU stock. Windows were also added to the non-driving ends of cars during refurbishment.

After over 40 years service C Stock was replaced by S Stock in 2014. Three cars of C77 Stock have survived scrapping including 5721 at the London Transport Museum and the other 2 at educational establishments.
Car 5606 at Earls Court

Interior of preserved DM 5721

Non-driving end of 5721 showing the windows added during refurbishment

Cab of 5721

[1] John Glover, London Underground (Ian Allan, 1997) p. 56
[2] John Glover, London Underground Rolling Stock in Colour (Ian Allan, 2009) p. 5
[3] Piers Connor, The London Underground Electric Train (Crowood, 2015) p. 160
[4] John Scott Morgan, London Underground in Colour since 1955 (Ian Allan, 2003) p. 17

Class 416 2-EPB

The Class 416 2-EPB EMU was built for to supplement suburban services on the Southern Electric services in the 1950s, they were the first Southern units along with the 4 car Class 415 4-EPBs to have Electro Pneumatic Brakes (hence the Alpha codes) [1]. There were 2 types of manufacture, the 416/1 used underframes from withdrawn 2-NOL units [2] and the 416/2 was based on the Mark 1 coach design.

A version of the Class 416 was also built for the South Tyneside electrified network between Newcastle and South Shields, these differed by having greater luggage space with a larger guard's area, express ratio gearing [3] and a modified front end [4] to North Eastern Region requirements. When the Tyneside electrified network was "de-electrified" in the early 1960s these units were sent to join the other 416s in Southern Region.

Number built: 256 (128 2-car units)
Built: 1953-56
Builder: BR Eastleigh
Engine: 2 English Electric EE507 traction motors (660-750v DC third rail)
Power: 500 hp (370 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Brake Standard (DMBS)+Driving Trailer Standard (DTS)

"Tyneside Units" had first class accommodation and ran as DMBS+
Driving Trailer Composite (DTC)

The Class 416 continued in service into the 1980s with a number refurbished as 416/3s and 416/4s. Withdrawals began in the mid-1980s beginning with the "Tyneside" units and all were withdrawn by 1995. Some driving trailers were also used to help form the Class 206 "Tadpole" DEMUs [5].

Five units have been preserved.
"Tyneside" 5793 at the Electric Railway Museum

6307 at the Electric Railway Museum

Front view of 5793

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 320
[2] Brian Haresnape & Alec Swain, Third Rail DC Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1989) p. 34
[3] David Brown, Southern Electric Vol 2 (Capital Transport, 2010) p. 196
[4] Haresnape & Swain p. 38
[5] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Multiple Units: The Second Generation & DEMUs (Ian Allan, 1986) p. 36

Class 378

The Class 378 "Capitalstar" was the centre piece of the modernisation of Transport for London's commuter rail network which was reorganised as London Overground. The Class 378 is part of Bombardier's highly successful Electrostar family though there were a number of differences for London Overground [1] including tube style longitudinal seating, wide gangways and LU tripcocks. Originally they were built as 3-car sets but were soon augmented with a 4th car. Later on increasing demand saw them further strengthened to 5-car sets.

Number built: 285 (57 5-car sets)
Built: 2009-15
Builder: Bombardier
Engine: 3 Bombardier traction motors per motor car (750c DC third rail or 25kV AC OLHE)
Power: 3, 200 hp (2, 400 kW)
Formation: 378/1: Driving Motor Open Standard (DMSO)+Motor Open Standard (MOS)+
Trailer Open Standard (TSO)+MOS+DMSO
378/2: DMSO+MOS+Pantograph Trailer Standard Open (PTSO)+MOS+DMSO

The Class 378s operate on most lines in the London Overground network with the 378/1s being 750v DC third rail equipped and the 378/2s dual voltage with 25v AC overhead line electric collection as well [2]. Strengthening of the fleet to 5-car sets has now been completed [3] though overcrowding continues to be a problem on the Overground, and likely will continue until new EMUs begin to displace the 378s in a couple of years time from some routes allowing service frequencies to be increased.
378 144 at Peckham Rye

378 213 at Queen's Park

378 151 and 378 141 at Dalston Junction

378 223 at Imperial Wharf

[1] John Glover, London's Overground (Ian Allan, 2012) p. 106
[2] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 290
[3] Underground News No. 654 (June 2016) p. 348

Class 121

Of all the hundreds of units built across many classes only one first generation DMU remains in service, and that is the Class 121 "Bubble Car" which can still be found on the Aylesbury-Princes Risborough branch. The Class 121, like the Class 122, is a single-car DMU though unpowered trailers with cabs at one end were also built to supplement capacity during peak demand [1].

Number built: 26 cars (16 DMBS 10 trailers)
Built: 1960
Builder: Pressed Steel
Engine: 2 AEC or Leyland 1595 diesels per DMBS
Power: 300 hp (220 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Brake Standard (DMBS)+[Driving Trailer Standard (DTS)]

The Class 121s were allocated to British Rail's Western Region working on lightly used branch lines in Cornwall and along the Thames Valley. Originally in BR green they later carried BR blue and grey and some also received Network South East livery [2]. In the privatisation era they have worked with Silverlink and Arriva Trains Wales as well as their current operator Chiltern Railways.

The Class 121 outlasted all other first generation DMUs and a small number are still in service having been fitted with central door locking to meet current safety standards [3]. A number of Class 121s also found a new role in departmental service and were renumbered in the Class 960 sequence. They have been used for route learning, track surveying and sandite depositing. Three 121/960s remain in service, 5 DMBS and 2 trailers have been preserved to date.
W55023 at Chinnor

Chiltern 960 014 at Aylesbury

W55024 / 960 010 at Chinnor

[1] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Multiple Units, the First Generation (Ian Allan, 1985) p. 60
[2] Gavin Morrison, British Railway DMUs in Colour (Ian Allan, 2010) p. 33
[3] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 80