Class 46 (BR/Sulzer 2,500hp Type 4 Diesel-Electric)

Following the success of the ten Class 44 pilot scheme Type 4 diesels BR went ahead with a production order which was split between one hundred and twenty seven Class 45s and fifty six Class 46s (there were originally going to be twenty more built but the order was changed to the Class 47 instead). The Classes 45 and 46 are very similar mainly differing from the electrical equipment used, Crompton Parkinson for the 45 and Brush for the 46 [1].

Number built: 56
Built: 1961-63
Builder: BR Derby
Motor: Sulzer 12LDA28-B diesel
Power: 2, 500 hp (1, 864 kW)
Formation: 1-Co-Co-1

From their entry into service in the early 1960s the Class 46s could be seen on cross-country expresses and long-distance freights though these services switched over to newer motive power like the HSTs during the 1970s and withdrawals of the Class 46 began in 1977, by 1984 all had been withdrawn from revenue earning service. All 46s were fitted with steam heating only which became a problem as the amount of steam heated coaching stock was reduced by BR [2].

Most were scrapped though one, 46 009, was destroyed as it was deliberately driven at speed into a nuclear flask (unmanned of course!) to test the strength of the flask [3] in the event of a rail crash. A couple entered service with the Railway Technical Centre to provide motive power for test trains, 46 035 Ixion was also used for a number of experiments including the performance of separately excited traction motors and equipment to reduce wheel spin [4]. Three (including both of the RTC 46s) have been preserved.
D182 at Kidderminster Town

46 035 at Rowsley South

46 010 at Kidderminster Town

Another view of 46 035 at Rowsley South

D182 at Kidderminster Town

46 010 at Kidderminster Town

[1] Brian Haresnape, Production Diesel-Electrics Types 4 and 5 (Ian Allan, 1984) p. 31
[2] John Vaughan, Diesels on the London Midland (Ian Allan, 1981) p. 75
[3] John Glover, BR Diary 1978-1985 (Ian Allan, 1985) p. 93
[4] Colin J Marsden, 25 Years of Railway Research (OPC, 1989) p. 81

Warrington Corporation Tramways

Work began on the Warrington tramway in 1901 following a failed attempt to introduce horse drawn trams in the late nineteenth century. Operations on the first two lines began in April 1902 with three other lines opening later that year. The total length of the network was just over eleven kilometres. Twenty one trams (built in two batches) were introduced, initially as open-top trams but later fitted with canopies. Six new trams were bought from Brush in 1919 to allow for greater service frequencies. Unlike many other tram networks the Warrington system had made a profit most years but as the 1930s approaches there was the need to renew the network and buses were chosen instead as a cheaper alternative. The network was gradually run down and closed completely in mid-1935.

Information for G.F. Milnes built cars
Number built: 21
Built: 1901-02
Builder: G.F. Milnes

Very little of the Warrington Corporation Tramway now survives however one of the original trams, Number 2, had a second life as a bowling green shelter and was saved for preservation in 1977. It is now being restored at the Wirral Transport Museum as Warrington 28.
Warrington No. 2 on the right

The tram is being restored back to it's later operating condition

Front view

Class 450 Desiro

The Class 450 is part of the Desiro family of EMU and are very similar to the Class 350 but works off the former Southern Region 750V DC third rail system (the 350s operate off 25kV AC OHLE). One hundred and twenty seven sets were built for South West Trains replacing life expired "slam door" VEP and CIG stock [1]. Although they can only be used on third-rail routes they do have space for the retro-fitting of a pantograph if needed in the future.

Number built: 508 (127 4-car sets)
Built: 2002-7
Builder: Siemens Transportation
Motor: 4 1TB2016 0GB02 three-phase traction motors (750V DC third rail)
Power: 2, 682 hp (2, 000 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)+Trailer Composite Open
(TCO)+Trailer Standard Open (TSO)+
Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)

The original fleet is known as the Class 450/0 and can carry two hundred and forty two standard class and twenty four first class passengers, first and some standard class seating is 2+2 with other standard class seating being 2+3.

Twenty eight sets were modified for higher capacity (facilitated by removing first class seats and altering the internal layout) for the Waterloo-Windsor route [2] in 2008-9 as Class 450/5. First class seating was restored to these units as they were replaced by Class 458/5s on the route from 2013 and the 450/5s rejoined the main fleet.

Originally SWT were to receive a mixed fleet of 450/0s and 450/2s which were to be 5-car sets for inner suburban routes however the idea was dropped due to problems with platform lengths. All sets remain in service with South West Trains' successor South Western Railway who took over in the late Summer of 2017 [3].
SWR 450 104 and 560 at Haselmere

SWT 450 027 at Ash

SWT 450 011 at Portsmouth Harbour

SWR 450 548 at Virginia Water

SWR 450 558 at Ash Vale

SWR 450 094 at Guildford

[1] John Balmforth, South West Trains (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 62
[2] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 349
[3] Modern Railways (May 2017) p. 24

Sheffield Corporation Standard Car (156-230)

The Sheffield Corporation began building a new generation of trams in-house in the 1930s to modernise it's fleet and replace it's legacy and ageing trams some of which dated back to 1899. Seventy five trams were built of this batch of the "standard" car. The design was derived from one by local firm Cravens who developed a sample tramcar design in 1927. The standard cars were fully enclosed with a modern streamlined appearance and had the latest innovations including air brakes and upholstered seats!

Number built: 75
Built: 1933-35
Builder: Sheffield Corporation Transport
Motor: 2 x Metropolitan Vickers 102DR electric motors (DC OHLE)
Power: 100 hp (75 kW)

The standard cars survived in service until the end of the Sheffield Corporation tram system in 1960. The preserved example 189, which is now at Crich Tramway Museum, being withdrawn and preserved in 1958.
189 preserved at Crich Tramway Museum

Another view of 189 showing the entrance

End view of 189

And from the other end!

Chesterfield Corporation Tramways

The Chesterfield & District Tramways Company was formed in 1879 and began operation in 1882 with horse drawn trams. The company went insolvent not long after though the successor Chesterfield Tramways Company was able to expand the network and was bought by the Chesterfield Corporation in 1897 [1].

In 1904, as the original line needed replacement, the decision was taken to expand and electrify the line which at it's greatest extent stretched nearly six kilometres. The tramway eventually had a fleet of fifteen tramcars (one being a water car for works purposes) though some were badly damaged in a tramshed fire in 1916. Like most tramways the Chesterfield service struggled to maintain the condition of the line and pay creditors a dividend. The corporation switched to trollybuses and motorbuses in the mid-1920s, the tramway closing for good in 1927 [2].

Information for 1904 Aston type cars
Number built: 12
Built: 1904
Builder: Brush
Motor: 2 Westinghouse 90M electric motors,
later 2 British Thomson-Houston RGE20 electric motors
(550v DC OHLE)
Power: 50 hp (37 kW) later 80 hp (60 kW)

The majority of the fleet consisted of twelve Aston type open double deck cars which were introduced in 1904 when the tramway was electrified. The fleet was strengthened in 1907 with two more double deck cars, the water car arriving in 1909. Finally in 1914 three new cars with covered top decks arrived. After the war the earlier cars had their top decks given covers.

One of Chesterfield Corporation's electric tram cars has been preserved, as well as one of the earlier horse drawn tram cars, at Crich Tramway Village. Number Seven was one of the original twelve Aston type cars. It was withdrawn in 1927 when the tramway was closed and became a holiday cottage [3] before being preserved in 1973. After a long restoration process it was returned to working order in 1997. Number 7 originally had an open top deck but had the deck covered in 1919 when it was repaired following the 1917 tramshed fire (see above).
Chesterfield Tram #7
Preparing to depart

#7 has been restored to running order at Crich Tramway Village

Top floor of #7

Although the top floor is covered, platforms are still open to the elements

Chesterfield horse tram #8, also preserved at Crich

[1] Barry Marsden, Chesterfield Tramways (Middleton Press, 2004) p. 2
[2] Marsden Fig. 118 
[3] Marsden Fig. 120

Southend Pier Railway Postwar Electric Stock

The Southend Pier Railway opened in 1890 and operated toast-rack style electric tram cars along it's length. After the pier and railway was re-opened following a period of closure during the Second World War passenger numbers greatly increased and the need was felt to replace the original cars with a more modern design. AC Cars of Thames Ditton were contracted to built four trains of seven cars each (in total twelve motor cars and sixteen trailers) for the 1,067mm gauge railway, each using design and technology similar to London Underground tube trains of the time including air operated sliding doors and rheostatic electric brakes [1]. The cars had four wheel trucks (made by Maley and Taunton [2]) with a 4.4m long wheelbase, somewhat long for four wheel vehicles though the pier railway lacked any tight curves and the long wheelbase aided stability.

Number built: 28 (4 7-car trains)
Built: 1949
Builder: AC Cars
Formation: Driving Motor (DM)+Trailer(T)+T+DM+T+T+DM

The new rolling stock proved reliable in service though passengers numbers gradually dropped during the 1950s and 1960s. The pier was also beginning to become in serious need of refurbishment. Much of the pier head was damaged in a fire in 1976 though the railway was undamaged [3] and had proved highly useful in evacuating the pier, it was finally closed in 1978. The pier remained railway-less until 1986 when a new diesel railway began operation [4]. Several electric cars have been preserved at the pier railway's own museum and at Leigh-on-Sea.
Car #21 preserved at Leigh-on-Sea

Postcard view of pier railway seen from the pier head end (KD Collection)

Another postcard view, this time at the shore end (KD Collection)

Another view of #21, it now lives on in an art gallery cafe!

[1] Keith Turner, Pier Railways & Tramways of the British Isles (Oakwood Press, 1999) p. 55
[2] Robert Harley, Southend-on-Sea Tramways (Middleton Press, 1994) Fig. 115
[3] Turner p. 61
[4] Dr Edwin Course, Barking to Southend (Middleton Press, 2002) Fig. 117

Southampton Corporation "Knifeboard" Tram

The Southampton Corporation tramcar fleet had to be designed to travel through the reduced clearance of the medieval Bargate [1]. The Corporation's tramcars were therefore shorter and narrower than those of other fleets and the Corporation retained open-topped trams until the 1920s when specially built low height domed cars were built. Tramcars built before that between 1899 and 1916 were of a similar design though built in batches by different manufacturers including Hurst Nelson and the Corporation themselves.

Information for Hurst Nelson built tramcars
Number built: 12
Built: 1903-04
Builder: Hurst Nelson
Motor: 2 Dick Kerr DK9A electric motors (DC OHLE)
Power: 50 hp (37 kW)

Despite more modern tramcars being built in the 1920s some of these earlier tramcars survived in service until the closure of the Southampton tram network in 1949. No. 45 was able to survive into preservation (it was the first tram to be preserved by a private body) and is now at Crich.
No. 45 at Crich

Front windows

Stair way

Roof detail

[1] R.W. Rush, British Electric Tramcar Design 1885-1950 (Oxford Publishing, 1976) p. 64

Class 458 5-JOP

The Class 458 4-JOP (Juniper Outer-suburban Porterbrook) was built for South West Trains in the late 1990s to replace some Class 411s, although designed for the ex-Southern Region 750v DC third rail network they were "future proofed" with provision to support a pantograph and overhead electric collection though have not carried one yet [1].

Their entry into service as 458/0 was unfortunately fraught with technical difficulties with serious usage on the London Waterloo to Reading and Guildford-Ascot routes not happening for several years and after many modifications [2]. The unreliability saw SWT plump for the "Desiro" Class 444/450s instead of more 458s to replace the majority of its "slam door" EMU fleet [3].

Number built: 120 (30 4-car sets)
(rebuilds) 180 (36 5-car sets)
Built: 1999-02
(rebuilds) 2013-6
Builder: Althom (Washwood Heath)
(rebuilds) Wabtec (Doncaster) & Brush Traction (Loughborough)
Motor: 6 Althom ONIX 800 traction motors (750v DC third-rail)
Power: 2, 172 hp (1, 620 kW)
Formation: (original) Driving Motor Composite Open (DMCO)+
Pantograph Standard Open (PSO)+Motor Standard Open (MSO)+
(rebuilds) Driving Motor Standard Open (DMSO)+

In 2011 after the withdrawal of the similar Class 460 from the Gatwick Express it was decided to use cars from the 460 to strengthen the 458s as five car trains (5-JOP). The trains were also refurbished and rebuilt with an improved appearance includinfg full gangways. Five "new" 458/5s (as they became known) were also created from spare rebuilt 460 cars. Work was completed in 2016 [5]. They are now operated by South Western Railway.
SWR 458 520 at Addlestone

458 535 in SWT days at Clapham Junction

Another SWT 458 at Clapham Junction

Close up of 458 503

SWR 458 515 at Clapham Junction

SWR 458 506 at Reading

[1] "Class 458" Southern Electric Group <>
[2] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013), p. 356
[3] "Train firm to replace new fleet", BBC News <>
[4] "Fire damaged 458 under repair", Railways Illustrated Issue 157 (March 2016)
[5] "458/5 programme nears completion", Today's Railways UK Issue 171 (March 2016)