Class 158 Express Sprinter

The Class 158 DMU is one of the mainstays of cross country routes having being built as express DMUs in the early 1990s to replace loco-hauled trains and older DMUs on provincial and regional services [1]. Nearly two hundred sets were built and they currently serve with multiple Train Operating Companies across Britain. Some have been converted to Class 159.
In EMT days 158 770 at Derby

Information
Number built: 354 (182 2 and 3 car sets)
Built: 1990-92
Builder: BREL Derby
Engine: Cummins NTA855R1/3 or Perkins 2006-TWH diesel engine per power car
Power: 350 hp (260 kW) or 400 hp (300kW) per vehicle
Formation: 2-car : Driving Motor Standard Lavatory (DMSL)+DMSL
or DMSL+Driving Motor Composite Lavatory (DMCL)
3-car : DMSL+Motor Standard (MS)+DMSL
or DMSL+DMSL+DMSL

The Class 158 operates as either a 2 or 3-car set, mostly with a Cummins engine though a few were fitted with Perkins engines instead. Currently the fleet is split into the 158/0 and 158/9 sub-classes. The latter were originally 2-car sets but were beefed up into 3-car by the addition of an extra driving coach though the cab of this is locked out of use.



The Class 158 is in operation with Northern, Scot Rail, Transport for Wales, South Western Railway, Great Western Railway and East Midland Railway (formerly East Midland Trains). Twelve 3-car sets were also built by BREL Derby for the Thailand state railway and also continue in service.
Northern 158 787 at York

Transport for Wales 158 825 at Cardiff Central

Back in Arriva Trains Wales days 158 826 passes through Smethwick Rolfe Street

EMT 158 854 approaches Duffield

EMT 158 856 at Sheffield

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 140

Hudson Hunslet 4wDM Shunters

Robert Hudson began producing narrow gauge locomotives for industrial use in 1911, at first steam locomotives in partnership with Hudswell Clarke. Later locomotives with internal combustion engines were built, these in partnership with the likes of Kerr Stuart. From 1937 Hudson went into partnership with the Hunslet Engine Company and the locomotives began to carry a Hudson Hunslet badge. These were simple locomotives usually powered by a 20 hp/15 kW) Alisa Craig diesel with chain drive.
Hudson Hunslet 3621 (1947) at the Statfold Barn Railway

Information for typical Hudson Hunslet 4wDM
Builder: Robert Hudson / Hunslet Engine Company
Motor: Alisa Craig CF2 diesel
Power: 20 hp (15 kW)
Wheel arrangement: 4wDM

The locomotives were simple in design without any enclosed cabs though there were options to add these if the customer required. Later versions, built in the 1950s, had more powerful engines, up to 50 hp (37 kW) and were slightly more refined in design though largely unchanged. A number of these shunters have been preserved both in the UK and abroad.
Atlas, Hudson Hunslet 2463 (1944) served with the MOD at Long Marston

Cab of Atlas

Another view of 3621

Rear view of Atlas, both this and 3621 are 610mm gauge locomotives

Class 52 (BR Swindon/Crewe 2,700hp Type 4 Diesel-Hydraulic)

In the 1960s the Western Region of British Rail was allowed to experiment with diesel hydraulic transmission as opposed to the rest of BR which used diesel electric transmission for mainline locomotives. The experiment was ultimately a failure with the non-standard diesel hydraulic locomotives being withdrawn from the late 1960s onwards after (in some cases very) short working lives. The Type 4 Class 52 "Western" was the flagship of the WR diesel hydraulic fleet and suitably was the last diesel hydraulic locomotive class to survive, it managed to hang on in BR service into early 1977 [1].
D1015 at Kidderminster Town in early BR blue livery

Information
Number built: 74
Built: 1961-64
Builder: BR Swindon and Crewe
Engine: 2 Maybach MD655 diesels
Power: 2, 700 hp (2, 014 kW)
Wheel arrangement: C-C

The Westerns along with some of the other diesel hydraulic classes were heavily influenced by German diesel locomotives and indeed had a pair of German made engines, though these proved expensive to maintain and class availability was poor for some time until modifications could be made to improve reliability. A great deal of care was made to the external appearance of the Westerns [2] which included a curved body profile to match those of the Mark 1 coaches it would typically pull. A number of liveries were also proposed and experimented with on the locos including desert sand, maroon and BR locomotive green [3]. Though the class was all in standard BR blue and yellow by the late 1960s in any case.



The Westerns were built to replace the GWR Kings on Western expresses though later were displaced to secondary services and freights as diesel electric locomotives like the Class 50 were transferred to Western Region. The Westerns managed to survive until early 1977 [4], their passing saw the greatest outpouring of enthusiast interest since the demise of steam and indeed they remain one of the more popular diesel locomotive classes to this day, a lot of this popularity probably due to their stylish and distinctive looks. Seven have been preserved and most of these continue to run on preserved lines (and the occasional main line foray) to this day.
Maroon D1062 at Hampton Loade

D1062 again, now in BR blue & yellow

D1010 at Kidderminster Town

D1023 at the National Railway Museum
D1062 at Kidderminster

[1] Brian Haresnape, Western Region Diesel Hydraulics (Ian Allan, 1982) p. 61
[2] David Lawrence, British Rail Designed 1948-97 (Ian Allan, 2016) p. 154
[3] John Jennison & Tony Sheffield, Diesel Hydraulics in the 1960s and 1970s (Ian Allan, 2014) p. 19
[4] A. Wyn Hobson, The Last Years of the Westerns (Ian Allan, 1983) p. 70

LBSCR Elevated Electric Stock / Southern Railway 2-SL / 2-WIM

These trains were built for the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway for it's "Elevated Electric" South London Line between London Victoria and London Bridge. The trains consisted of three car sets with two motor cars at either end for third class passengers (one including a guard's van) and first class passengers in an unpowered (and thus quieter) centre car! [1] The trains used a bow collector to connect to the overhead lines which supplied 6.7 kV AC at 25Hz [2]. The centre cars were removed from the formations in 1913 to become steam hauled stock.
Elevated Electric Stock on delivery [1]


Information
Number built: 24 (8 3-car sets later 16 2-car sets)
Built: 1908
Builder: Metropolitan Amalgamated Carriage and Wagon Company
Motor: 4 Winter Eichberg compensated-repulsion motors
(6.7kV AC OHLE later 660v DC third rail)
Power: 460 hp (343 kW)
Formation: Motor Third Brake (MThB) + Trailer First (TF) + Motor Third Brake

The first trains began running on the line via Denmark Hill in early 1909 [3]. The line was an immediate success and the LBSCR slowly expanded their elevated electric network on routes from Crystal Palace, more stock was produced in longer formations and with uprated Winter Eichberg motors.

However in 1923 the LBSCR was absorbed into the Southern Railway and the decision was taken to standardise on DC third rail. By 1928 the elevated electric lines had been converted to DC and the rolling stock also rebuilt. The Southern Region referred to the former elevated electric trains as 2-SL. They remained in service until 1954.

The Trailer Firsts were also rebuilt (even though they had been used as hauled stock for years) to form extra driving motor and trailer pairs. The Southern Region termed these sets 2-WIM and used them on the Wimbledon-West Croydon Line. They also remained in service until 1954.
SL stock in operation [3] note the bow collector

Comparison of first (left) and third class [1]

Motor bogie [1]


[1] "Electric Rolling Stock for the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway", The Railway Times (March 6 1909) p. 241
[2] David Brown, Southern Electric Vol. 1 (Capital Transport, 2010) p. 14
[3] "Electrification of suburban lines on the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway", The Railway Times (March 25, 1911) p. 289

Class 319 (BREL York Cross-Country "Thameslink" 4-car)

The Class 319 are electric multiple units (EMUs) which were built for "Thameslink" cross-London services in the late 1980s. As they are dual voltage (AC overhead and DC third rail) units so they can operate North and South of the river [1]. The 319 is based on the Class 317 EMU though has a modified front end without a gangway connection, it retained a door for emergency evacuation in tunnels which they had to travel through when crossing London.
Northern 319 374 at Huyton

Information
Number built: 344 (86 4-car sets)
Built: 1987-90
Builder: BREL York
Engine: 4 GEC G315BZ traction motors (750V DC third rail or 25kV AC OHLE)
Power: 1, 327 hp (990 kW)
Formation: 319/0: Driving Trailer Standard Open (DTSO)+
Motor Standard Open (MSO)+Trailer Standard Open Lavatory
(TSOL)+DTSO
319/1: Driving Trailer Composite Open (DTCO)+MSO+TSOL+DTSO

The class was built in two batches, 319/0 and 319/1 which had some first class accommodation plus an improved pantograph. During their career there have been a number of changes to the fleet. In the 1990s some 319/0s were converted to 319/2 standard with low-density seating and a disabled toilet for London Victoria services through to Brighton. A number of 319/1s have also had their first class seating removed during refurbishment to become 319/3. Some 319/0s have also had first class seating added and a lower density seating arrangement for Bedford-Brighton services as 319/4.

One feature unique to 319s was an area behind one of the cabs was fitted with fold down seats and made securable with a lockable door in order to carry mail [2]. This area was removed during refurbishment and the ceasing of transporting mail by train.


Class 319s have been replaced on Thameslink services by the Class 700 [3]. However there is much life remaining in these units and a number have been cascaded to the North West (Northern) and South Midlands (London Northwestern Railway).

Work is also ongoing to give them a new life as electro-diesel or bi-mode multiple units. A bi-mode version of the 319 called the 319 Flex (Class 769) is currently being developed by Brush and Porterbrook. Diesel engines and alternators are be carried under the driving cars and these would feed the unit's traction motors with the electricity needed when away from third rail or overhead lines. Although the project has been much delayed it is hoped the Class 769 will enter passenger service with Northern, GWR and Transport for Wales in the Spring of 2020 though originally the planned service date was 2018 [4][5].

One notable event in the life of the 319s came in 1994 when 319 008 and 319 009 became the first trains to carry passengers through the Channel Tunnel [6].
In Thameslink days 319 006 at Sevenoaks

Northern 319 369 at Crewe

Northern 319 375 at Liverpool Lime Street

Northern 319 386 at Wigan North Western
London Midland 319 457 at Milton Keynes Central

[1] Brian Haresnape & Alec Swain, Third Rail DC Electric Multiple Units (Ian Allan, 1989) p. 85
[2] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 251
[3] "Class 700s Branch Out", Railways Illustrated No. 161 (July 2016)
[4] "B-Mode Class 319 Flex from Porterbrook", Railways Illustrated No. 169 (March 2017)
[5] "Northern to get bi-modes", Modern Railways (February 2017)
[6] Southern E-Group: Class 319 <http://www.semgonline.com/gallery/class319_01.html>

Grimsby and Immingham Electric Railway

The Grimsby and Immingham Electric Railway linked Grimsby with the port of Immingham where a new large port complex had been built. The line was built by the Great Central Railway and opened in stages from 1912 with the full line open the following year [1]. The line operated hybrid tramcars incorporating tram car and railway technology running mainly on reserved railway track [2], as such this was an early tramtrain to use the current term.
Preserved number 14 at Crich


Information for GCR built cars
Number built: 4
Built: 1915
Builder: Great Central Railway / Brush Traction
Motor: 2 DK9 electric motors (500v DC OHLE)
Power: 100 hp (75 kW)

The first batch of twelve tram cars was built by Brush and Dick Kerr, some were short bodied for use on street sections of the line in Grimsby. A second batch was built at the GCR's Dukinfield Works in 1915. Later on some more traditional ex-street tram cars were added to the fleet which after 1923 became part of the London North Eastern Railway and finally British Railways.

The line began to be run down in the 1950s with the street running section closed first and the final closure in 1961, three vehicles have been preserved. Although the line did carry a lot of passengers even to the end it was never a great money spinner for it's owners.
Original cars in GCR days [3]

Interior of GCR car [3]
Another view of 14

[1] Colin J Marsden, Light Rail (Key Publishing, 2018) p. 108
[2] E. Jackson-Stevens, British Electric Tramways (David & Charles, 1971) p. 37
[3] "Great Central's Electric Line at Immingham", The Railway Times (April 6, 1912) p. 357

Class 143 (Walter Alexander / Andrew Barclay Local & Secondary Services 2-car)

The Class 143 is one of the Pacer family of diesel multiple units. It was built at the same time as the Class 142 and is also a railbus design marrying a bus or coach type body (built by coach builder Walter Alexander) to a chassis derived from a freight vehicle [1]. The Class 143 perhaps look a bit more like a train compared to the 142, the body of which retained more aspects of its Leyland National bus heritage. The follow-on Class 144 uses the same body as the Class 143 though with a different chassis [2].
Transport for Wales 143 623 at Cardiff Central


Information
Number built: 50 (25 2-car sets)
Built: 1985-86
Builder: Walter Alexander / Andrew Barclay
Motor:Cummins LTA10-R diesel per car
Power: 450hp (330kW)
Formation: DMS (Driving Motor Standard)+DMSL (Driving Motor Standard Lavatory)

Originally the 143s worked for British Rail's Provincial Sector and the Tyne & Wear PTE. In the privatised era they are operated by GWR and Transport for Wales (formerly Arriva Trains Wales). Like the 142s their original transmission has been replaced with a Voith hydraulic one.

As with the other Pacer designs the 143s are now in their final few months though the planned withdrawal by 2020 may slip by a few months. Two trainsets have already been withdrawn due to fire damage.
Transport for Wales 143 624 at Cardiff Queen Street

Arriva Trains Wales 143 606 at Cardiff Queen Street

ATW 143 609 at Cardiff Queen Street

ATW 143 614 (and a Class 142) at Cardiff Central

ATW 142 075 and 143 606 at Cardiff Queen Street

[1] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 125
[2] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Multiple Units: The Second Generation & DEMUs (Ian Allan, 1986) p. 70

Hunslet Engine Company NCB 4wDH shunters

The Hunslet Engine Company built a number of small narrow gauge diesel hydraulic shunters in the late 1970s and early 1980s for use by the National Coal Board at pits across the country.
HE8819 at the Statfold Barn Railway

Information
Builder: Hunslet Engine Company
Motor: Diesel
Wheel arrangement: 4wDH

HE8819 is an example of one of these shunters. It was built in 1979 and used at Nantgarw Colliery in Wales, running on the 914mm gauge network there. Now it is preserved at the Statfold Barn Railway and has been re-gauged to 610mm.

Another preserved example is HE8812, built in 1978 it also worked in Wales at Cefn Coed Colliery it has now been restored to operational condition at the museum built on the Cefn Coed site [1]. Also preserved is HE8816 which worked at Killoch Colliery in Scotland and is now preserved by the Ayrshire Railway Preservation Group [2].
Another view of HE8819

[1] Industrial Railway Society, Industrial Loocomotives (18th Edition) (Industrial Railway Society, 2019) p. 293
[2] Ibid. p. 259